主页 സമകാലിക ഇന്ത്യ

സമകാലിക ഇന്ത്യ

നെഹ്റുവിയന്‍ കാലഘട്ടത്തിന്ശേഷം ഇന്ത്യ പിന്നിട്ട അരനൂറ്റാണ്ടിനെക്കുറിച്ചുള്ള ചര്‍ച്ചകള്‍ ഇന്ത്യയിലെമ്പാടും നടക്കുമ്പോള്‍ ഏറെ പ്രസക്തമായ കൃതിയാണിത്. ആധുനികതയുടെ സവിശേഷതകള്‍, നെഹ്റുവിന്റെ വികസനസങ്കല്പം, ഹിന്ദുത്വത്തിന്റെ സ്ഥലതന്ത്രങ്ങള്‍, വര്‍ത്തമാനകാല ഇന്ത്യയിലെ ജാത്യസമത്വങ്ങള്‍, ഇന്ത്യന്‍ മധ്യവര്‍ഗ്ഗത്തിന്റെ പ്രതാപം, ആഗോളവത്കരണവും സാംസ്കാരികപ്രദേശങ്ങളുടെ ഭൂമിശാസ്ത്രവും എന്നീ വിഷയങ്ങള്‍ സമൂഹശാസ്ത്രരീതിശാസ്ത്രത്തിന്റെ സഹായത്താടെ ആഴത്തില്‍ വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുന്ന ഈ കൃതി, വര്‍ത്തമാന ഇന്ത്യന്‍ അവസ്ഥയെ സൂക്ഷ്മപഠനത്തിന് വിധേയമാക്കാന്‍ ആഗ്രഹിക്കുന്നവര്‍ക്ക് മികച്ച ഒരു വഴികാട്ടിയാണ്. സമീപകാലത്ത് ഇന്ത്യയില്‍ പ്രസിദ്ധീകൃതമായ ഏറ്റവും പഠനാര്‍ഹമായ സമൂഹശാസ്ത്ര ഗ്രന്ഥങ്ങളിലൊന്നാണിത്.
年份:
2014
出版社:
Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishad
语言:
malayalam
File:
PDF, 10.25 MB
下载 (pdf, 10.25 MB)

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ae-bmfw
ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaql-im-kv{X-ho-£Ww
kXoiv tZiv]msfi
hnh¿Ø\w :
sP.tZhnI
H∂mw ]Xn∏v
Unkw-_¿ 2014
FUnt‰mdnb¬ Akn v :
icXv iin.hn
{]km-[\w, hnX-cWw :
tIc-f- im-kv{X-km-lnXy ]cn-jØv
Xr»q¿ - 680004
C˛-sa-bn¬ :
publicationkssp@gmail.com
en]n hn\ymkw & Ih¿:
{iohm-kp-tZh `´-Xncn
te Hu´v :
hn]n≥Zmkv

sXtc

A®Sn :
Hm^vsk‰v {]nt‚gvkv,
A¶-amen

Malayalam
Samakaalika India
Oru samoohasasthra veekshanam
Satish Deshpande
Translated by
J.Devika
First edition
December 2014
Editorial Assistant :
Sarath Sasi.V
Published and distributed by :
Kerala Sasthra Sahithya Parishath
Thrissur - 680004
e-mail :
publicationkssp@gmail.com
Type setting & Cover :
Sreevasudeva Bhattathiri
Lay out :
Vipindas
Printed at :
Theressa Offset Printers,
Angamaly

© Satish Deshpande, J Devika
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0)
` 300.00
ISBN : 978-93-83330-57-7
KSSP

2073

I E

DEC 2014

R1/8

3K

30000

FT 948/14

kXoiv tZiv]msfi
1958-˛¬ I¿Wm-SIbnse [m¿hm-Un¬ P\-\w. Zn√n k¿hIemimebn¬
kaqlimkv{Xm[ym]I\mWv. Contemporary India : A Sociological View
(Penguin 2003), Untouchability in Rural India (L≥iymw jm, l¿jv
am≥tZ¿, kpJ-Zntbm tXmcm-´v, AanX _mhnkvI¿ XpSßnbhtcmsSm∏w
cNn®Xv, Sage 2006) F∂nh At±lØns‚ {][m\ IrXnIfmWv. a‰p
KthjI¿s°m∏w Anthropology in the East : Founders of Indian Sociology
and Social Anthropology (Permanent Black 2007), Beyond Inclusion :
The Practice of Equal Access in Indian Higher Education (Routledge 2013)

F∂o IrXnIƒ FUn‰v sNbvXn´p≠v. 2012˛¬ hnIk\]T\ßfn¬
anI® kw`mh\Iƒ°p≈ am¬°w BZntijø Ahm¿Un\v A¿l
\mbn. PmXn˛h¿K AkaXz߃, kmaqlnI\oXnbpsS kn≤m¥hpw
{]tbmKhpw, kmaqlnIimkv { XßfpsS Ncn{Xhpw cmjv { Sobhpw,
Z£nWcmPy߃ XΩnep≈ _u≤nI CSs]SepIƒ, kmaqlnI
imkv{Xm[ym]\Øns‚, hntijn®pw C¥y≥ `mjIfnse kmaqlnI
imkv{Xm[ym]\Øns‚ {]iv\߃ F∂nhbmWv KthjW
taJeIƒ.
sP.tZhnI
Xncp-h-\-¥-]p-csØ sk‚¿ t^m¿ sUh-e-]vsa‚ v ÃUo-kn¬ Kth-jIbpw A[ym-]n-I-bp-am-Wv. tIc-fob B[p-\n-I-X-bn¬ kmaq-lnI]-cnjvI-c-Ww, hnI-k-\w, kwkvIm-cw, cmjv{So-bw, enwKt`Zhyh-lmc߃
F∂n-h-bpsS ]c-kv]-c-{]-h¿Ø-\-sØ-°p-dn; ®v ]Tn-°-p∂p. ae-bm-f-Øn¬
\n∂v Cw•o-jn-te°pw Xncn®pw \nc-h[n ]cn-`m-j-Iƒ \n¿h-ln-®n´p≠v.

{]km[I°pdn∏v
tIc-f-Ønse Hcp {]apJ kmaq-lnIimkv{X-⁄≥ Hcn-°¬
]d™p : ""tZio- b - X - e - Ø n¬ Adn- b - s ∏- S p∂ tIc- f o- b - c mb
tkmtjymf-Pn-Ãp-Iƒ Fs´m-ºXv t]tc-bp-≈p. Ah-cm-cpw-Xs∂
D∂-X-]-T\w \S-Øn-bXv tIc-f-Øn-e-√. tIc-f-Øn¬ tkmtjymfPnbn¬ _ncp-Z-_ncp-Zm-\-¥c]-T\w Bcw-`n-®n´v Hcp \q‰m-≠n-te-sdbm-bn. F∂n´pw CXm-W-h-ÿ''. tIc-f-Ønse D∂-X-hn-Zym-`ym-kØns‚ s]mXp-hnepw, kmaq-ln-Ii
- m-kv{X-hn-Zym-`ym-kØ
- ns‚ {]tXyIn®pw KpW-\n-eh
- m-cØ
- ns‚ ]cn-Xm-]I
- c
- a
- mb ]X-\Ø
- n-tebv°
- mWv
At±lw hnc¬Nq-≠n-b-Xv. CtXm-sSm∏w tN¿Øv tNmZn-°m-hp∂
as‰m-cp-tNmZyw Bg-Ønepw ka-{K-X-bnepw ]Tn®v Fgp-X-s∏´ F{X
kmaq-lnI imkv{X-{K-Ÿ-߃ ae-bm-f-Øn-ep≠v F∂-Xm-Wv.
tIcf Øns‚ hnZym-`ym-kw, kmº-Øn-I-cw-Kw, Irjn, hyh-kmbw,
BNmc-߃, A\p-jvTm-\-߃, Ie... Cßs\ GXv Pohn-X-ta-J-esb-Sp-Ømepw ÿnXn Xr]vXn-I-c-tam, Bim-h-ltam A√. Hcp
\√ ssKUv ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ \ne-hm-c-Øn-ep-≈-XmWv an°Xpw.
a‰p-≈h AXnepw Xmsg-bpw. A]-hm-Z-ß-fn-s√-∂√ CXn-\¿∞w.
imkv { X- k m- l nXy]cn- j - Ø n- s ‚bpw `mjmC≥Ãn- ‰ yq- ´ n- s ‚bpw
{]h¿Ø-\^
- e
- ambn {]IrXnimkv{X-ßf
- psS Ahÿ A¬]w IqSn
t`Z-s∏´-Xm-sW-∂p-]-d-bmw.
tIc-f-Ønse hnZym-`ymk{]{In-b-bn¬ kmaq-lnIimkv{X-]-T\Øns‚ ÿnXnbpw CtXmSv tN¿Øv hmbn-°-Ww. s]mXpsh
A[ym]-I¿°pw At[yXm-°ƒ°pw Xm¬]-cy-an-√mØ hnj-ba
- mWv
kmaq-ln-I-im-kv{Xw. hnZym¿∞n-Isf Ip‰w ]d-bm-\m-hn-√. Ah¿°v
]I¿∂p-sIm-Sp-°p∂ Imcy-ßfpw AXns‚ coXnbpw hnc-khpw
Atcm-N-I-hp-am-Ip-tºmƒ B ]T-\-ta-J-etbmSv hnap-J-cm-IpI
F∂Xv kzm`m-hnIw am{Xw. CsX√mw tN¿∂v kaq-lØ
- ns‚ apt∂m´p≈ t]m°n¬ apJy-Nm-e-I-i-‡n-bm-tI≠ kmaq-ln-I-imkv{Xw
]q¿W-ambpw Ah-K-Wn-°-s∏-Sp∂ Ah-ÿ-bn-emWv \msa-Øn\n¬°p-∂Xv.

C¥y-bnse {]apJ tkmtjym-f-Pn-Ãmb tUm.-k-Xoiv tZiv
]msfi-bpsS ka-Im-enI C¥y : Hcp kaq-li
- m-kv{X-ho-£Ww
F∂ {KŸw {it≤-b-am-bn-Øo-cp-∂Xv ta¬]-d™ khntij
kmlNcy-Øn-em-Wv. C¥y-bnse B[p-\n-I-Xbpw ]mc-º-cyhpw,
s\lvdp-hns‚ hnI-k-\-k¶ev]hpw kmº-Øn-I-\-b-hpw, lnμpXz
Øns‚ ÿ
e
- X
- {- ¥w, C¥y-bnse PmXy-ka
- X
- z-߃ apX-emb Imcy߃ hni-Z-ambpw kq£va-ambpw A]-{K-Yn®v Ah-X-cn-∏n°p-IbmWv {KŸ- I m- c ≥ sNbv X n- ´ p- ≈ - X v . s\lv d p- h n¬\n∂v C¥y
FØn-\n¬°p∂ C∂sØ {]tXyI ]cn-tXm-hÿ
b
- n¬ Cu IrXnbpsS hmb\ Gsd Dƒ°mgvNI
- ƒ {]Zm\w sNøp-sa∂v Xo¿®-bmWv.
Cu IrXn aebmfØn¬ {]kn≤oIcn°p∂Xn\v BthitØmSpw
A`n-am-\-tØm-Spw-IqSn A\p-hmZw \¬Inb tUm.-k-Xo-in\pw
Cu IrXn ae-bm-f-Øn-te°v at\m-l-c-ambn ]cn-`m-j-s∏-Sp-Ønb
tUm.-tZ-hn-Ibv°pw \μn.
tIcf imkv{XkmlnXy ]cnjØv

D≈S°w
1. kaqlsØ ]mfnt\m°ptºmƒ

23

2. "khntij B[p\nIX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an°ptºmƒ

58

3. tZiw "I¬]nXkºZvhyhÿ'bpsS cq]Øn¬

96

4. lnμpXzhpw AXns‚ ÿeX{¥ßfpw

133

5. kaImenI C¥ybnse PmXykaXz߃

168

6. a[yh¿KØns‚ tI{μ{]m[m\yw

202

7. BtKmfh-¬IcWhpw
kmwkvImcnI{]tZißfpsS `qanimkv{Xhpw

236

A\p_‘w
i_vZkw{Klw
{KŸkqNn

263
267
302

1
kaqlsØ ]mfnt\m°ptºmƒ

k

- a q- l - i m- k v { X- Ø n- t e- s °mcp £Ww (Invitation to
Sociology) F∂ Xs‚ {]ikvX{KŸØns‚ BZyhmNIßfn¬
Xs∂ hnJymX-kaql-im-kv{X-⁄-\mb ]o‰¿ _¿K¿ (Peter
Berger) kΩXn°p∂ Hcp Imcy-ap-≠v. kaq-limkv{X⁄-sc°p- d n®v hfsc Ipd®p Xam- i - I ƒ am{Xta {]Nm- c - Ø n- e p- ≈ q.
CtXm¿Øv F\n°v k¶Sw tXm∂m-dp-≠v. \ΩpsS {]Xm-]n-I-fmb
Afn-b∑m¿- ˛- k-º-Zv-im-kv{X-⁄¿- ˛- C-°m-cy-Øn¬ sa®-amb Ah
ÿbn-emWv. Ah-sc-°p-dn®v [mcmfw Xam-i-Ifp-≠v. \sΩ-°mƒ
{]Xm]w Ipd™ a\x- i m- k v { X- ⁄ ¿, \c- h w- i - i mkv { X- ⁄ ¿
apX-em-b-h¿°p-t]mepw A¿l-X-s∏-´-b-f-hn¬ Xam-i-bpsS ]¶v
In´n-bn-´p-≠v. kaq-l-Øn\v hne-s∏-´-Xm-bn-tØm-∂p-∂hsb Af°m≥ \s√mcp tImemWv lmky-cq]-ß-sf-¶n¬ kaq-l-im-kv{X⁄¿°pw kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\pw henb- ÿm-\-sam∂pan-s√∂v
]dtb≠n-h-cpw.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ {]Xn-—mb Cuhn-[-am-b-Xv shdp-sX-b√.
AXn-s\-∏‰n ]d™Xp-sIm≠v \ΩpsS apdn-th‰ Alw-t_m-[sØ
XWp-∏n-°m-\m-hn-√, F¶nepw ]dbmw. khn-ti-j-amb coXn-im-kv{X]cnioe\hpw ]cnNbhpw Bhiys∏Sp∂Xpw H‰t\m´-Øn¬
Øs∂ k¶o¿W-X-bm¿∂ D≈-S-°-ap-≈-Xmbn ImWm-hp-∂Xpamb
Nne kmaqlnIim-kv{X-ß-fp-≠v- (Social Sciences). D-Zm-l-c-W-Øn\v,
kmºØnIim-kv{Xw. CX-√m-sX, -A-\ytam hnNn-{X-ßtfm Bb
\mSp-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ ]T-\w, kz¥w \mSn-s‚tbm A\y-\m-SpI-fp
sStbm Ncn{Xw apX-em-b-h ssIIm-cyw-sN-øp∂ a‰pNne kmaqlnIim-kv{X-im-J-I-fp-ap≠v. ssZ\w-Zn\Pohn-X-Øn¬\n∂v AI-∂p\n¬°p-∂p-sh∂ {]XoXn Ah Df-hm°ntb-°mw. Chbv°pw
Hs´mcp k¶o¿W-{]-Xn-—mb kz¥-am°mw. Chbv°n-S-bn¬ kaql23

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

imkv { Xw GXm- ≠ v H‰s∏´p\n¬°p∂p
sh∂v ImWmw. kaq- l - i m- k v { X- Ø ns‚
]T\hn-jbw ssZ\w-Zn\Pohn-X-Øns‚ D≈S-°-hp-ambn IqSp-X¬ IqSn-t®¿∂p \n¬°p∂p-sh∂ tXm∂-emWv Cu H‰-s∏Sen\p
]n∂n¬. F√m kmaq-lnIhy-‡n-Ifpw kmaqlnI-_-‘-ß-fnepw ÿm]-\-ß-fnepw Dƒ
s∏-Sp-∂-h-cm-Wv; Ah¿ kaq-l-Ønse aqey߃, BZ¿i-߃ apX-em-b-hsb t\cn´
]o‰¿ _¿K¿
\p- ` - h n- ° p- ∂ p, ]cn- N bn°p∂p. Cßs\
F√m-hcpw ]¶p-h-bv°p∂, k¿h-km-[m-c-W-amb Nne Imcy-ßsf
apJy-]-T-\-hn-j-b-ambn FÆp-∂ kaql-im-kv{XsØ Bcpa[nIw
Bcm-[n-°m-Ø-Xn¬ A¤p-X-s∏-Sm\n√. kaqlimkv{Xsa∂m¬
shdpw kmam-\y-_p≤n (common sense) am{X-am-sW∂p ]ecpw
Icp-Xp-∂-Xnepw AXn-i-bn-°m-\n-√.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ Cu hn[nsb khn-tijkz`mhap≈
Zpc¥-ambn FtÆ-≠-Xn-√. kmaq-lnIb-it m ap¥nb iº-ftam
hmKvZm\w sNøm≥ Ignhn√mØ F√m ⁄m\-im-J-Ifpw GsX
¶nep-a-f-hn¬ Cu hn[n ]¶p-h-bv°p-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬ kmaq-lnI
im-kv{X-߃°n-S-bn¬ kaq-l-imkv{Xw Xs∂ Cu hn[-Øn¬
]cn-K-Wn-°-s∏-´-Xn¬ (kaq-l-Øns‚ kmam-\y-_p≤n am{X-ambn
IW- ° m- ° - s ∏- ´ - X n¬)- h√msØmcp hntcm[m`mk- a p- ≠ v . Cu
hntcm-[m-`m-k-Øn\v c≠v Xe-ß-fp-s≠∂pw hy‡-am-Wv.
H∂m- a sØ Xew CXmWv : ta¬hnh- c n® X≈n- ° - f - b ¬
"kmam\y-_p≤n'sb hfsc efn-Xhpw kzbw{]Xy-£-hp-amb {]Xn`m-k-am-bmWv k¶-¬]n-°p-∂-Xv. CXv tIhew sX‰n-≤m-cW am{Xam-Wv. kXy-Øn¬, Bg-ta-dn-bXpw h≥kzm-[o-\-ti-jn-bp-≈-Xp-amb
{]Xn-`m-k-am-WXv. \ΩpsS ssZ\w-Zn-\-`m-j-bn¬ "Bcpw ]Tn-∏n°msX', "kzm`m-hn-I-ambn', \mw t\Sp∂ Adn-hp-sfbpw Ign-hpIsfbpamWv kmam- \ y- _ p- ≤ n- b mbn Nn{Xo- I - c n°m- d v . Imbn- I temIsØ kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Hc-f-hp-hsc-sb-¶nepw Cß-s\bp≈ kzbw-]-T-\-߃ icnbm-bn-cn-°mw. Imbn-I-ti-jn-I-fn¬
]eXpw \mw kzbw ]Tn-s®-Sp-°p-∂-h-bm-W-t√m-. -D-Zm-l-c-WØn-\v,
ssk°nƒNhn´¬. ]t£, kmaq-lnI-tem-IØv Bsc¶nepw ]Tn∏n-®p-X-cm-Ø-Xmbn bmsXm-∂p-an-√. AhnsS \ap-°p≈ Adnhp-Iƒ
apgp-h≥ kaqlw ]Tn-∏n®pX∂h am{X-am-Wv. ]t£, ]et∏mgpw
AØcw ]Tn-∏n-°-ens‚ AS-bm-f-ß-sfbpw hgn-I-sfbpw kaqlw
ambv®p-I-f-bp-sa∂p -am-{Xw. IrXy-am-bn-∏-d-™m¬, CXp-Xs∂bmWv
"kmam-\y-_p≤n'; Btcm Ft∏mtgm ]-Tn-∏n-®X
- msW¶nepw Aßs\
24

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

\mw IW-°m-°mØ kmaqlnIhn⁄m\w. kmaqlnILS\sb
Dd-∏n®p tN¿°p∂ Ac°v kmam-\y-_p-≤n-bn-eq-sS-bmWv krjvSn°-s∏Sp-∂Xv; AXp-sIm≠v CXns\ AXoh{]m-[m-\y-ap≈ kmaqlnI-ÿm-]-\-am-bn-Øs∂ IW-°m-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. kaq-l-im-kv{X⁄¿°n-S-bn¬ Cu ]Z-Øn\v hfsc khntijamsbmcp ÿm\
ap≠mIm≥ CXmWp Imc-Ww. kaq-lsØ a\- n-em-°m-\mbn \mw
D]- t bm- K n- ° p∂, kaqlw \Ωn¬ hf¿Ønh- c p∂ aqey߃,
at\m`mh߃, Nn¥mioe߃ XpS-ßn-b-h-bpsS hen-sbmcp
\ncsbØs∂ H‰-b-Sn°p kqNn-∏n-°p∂ Npcp-s°-gp-Øm-W-Xv.
IrXyamb A¿∞Øn¬ "kmam-\y-_p≤n' "ap≥hn[n' Xs∂bmWv. F¥ns\sb¶nepw \mw t_m[]q¿h-w hnebncp-Øpw apºpXs∂ AXv \Ωp-sS-bp-≈n¬ ÿm\w]nSn°p-Ibpw Imcyambn
{]h¿Øn®pXpSßpIbpw sNøpw. kmaqlnItemIØns‚ knwl
`mKsØ-°p-dn®v bmsXmcp kwi-b-ßfpw tXm∂mØ hn[-Øn¬
\ΩpsS Xncn-®-dn-hns\ AXv ap≥Iq´n Nn´-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p. "D≠m-bncp-∂p, D≠v, D≠m-bn-cn°pw' F∂v IÆp-a-S®p hniz-kn-°p∂ hn[Øn¬ \ΩpsS Xncn-®-dn-hp-Isf AXv ap≥Iq´n LSn-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v.
Cßs\ AXn- ] - c n- N n- X - a m- b n- Ø o¿∂ kmaq- l nItem- I - J fiw
a™p-ae kap-{Z-Øn¬ B≠p-In-S-°ptºmse \ΩpsS t_m[-a-fie-Øn¬ B≠pInS-°p-∂p- ˛ -A-Xns‚ hfsc sNdnb apIƒ`mKw
am{Xta \ΩpsS {]Xy-£-amb {i≤sb BI¿jn°q. temI-sØ∏-‰n-bp≈ Nne s]mXp-[m-c-W-Iƒ ]c-kv]cw ]¶p-h-®n-√m-bn-cp-s∂¶n¬ kmaq-lnIPo-hnXw \ap-°v A-km-[yam-tbs\. AXp-sIm-≠mWv
kmaq-lnIPo-hn-X-°pdn®v \mw sIm≠p-\-S-°p∂ kmam-\y-_p≤n
]¶p- h - b v ° mØhcp- a m- b p≈ CS- ] - g - I ¬ \sΩ h√mØ ]ncnap-dp-°-Øn-se-Øn-°p-∂-Xv. sNdnb Ip´n-Iƒ, at\m-tcmKn-Iƒ
apX-em-b-h¿ \mw ]¶p-h-bv°p∂ kmam-\y-_p-≤n°v (hyXy-kvXco-Xn-Ifn¬) ]pd-Øp-\n¬°p-∂h
- c
- m-Wv. AXp-sIm-≠mWv Ch-tcmSnS]-g-Ip-tºmƒ ]e-t∏mgpw am\-kn-I-k-Ω¿Zw A\p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.
F∂m¬ kmam-\y-_p-≤n-°-∏pdw Nn¥n-°pIsb∂Xv ]e-t∏mgpw
D√mkI-c-am-Im-dp-s≠-∂Xpw {it≤-b-amWv.
kmam-\y-_p-≤n-sb-°p-dn-®p≈ ta¬]d™ Bi-b-ß-fpsS ImXseSpØp]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ Ahbv°v ]g-°-ta-sd-bn-s√-∂pw _u≤nIam-\yX Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sm≥ Ign-bp-∂-h-bm-W-h-sb∂pw ImWmw-;
C¥y°m-cmb \mw ]d-bm-dp-≈-Xp-t]m-se, "Xd-hm-Sn-Ø'ap-≈-hbmWh. F∂m¬ kaq-l-im-kv{X-sa∂ IpSpw-_-Øns‚ Xmh-gnIƒ ]cn-tim[n-°p-tºmƒ kmam-\y-_p≤n F∂ Bibw (A-s√¶n¬ AXp-t]m-ep≈ as‰m-∂v) Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bv°p-≈n¬ {][m\am-bnØo¿∂ am¿K߃ hfsc hyXy-kvX-ßfmbncp∂psh∂v
25

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

ImWmw. apJy- a mbpw aq∂p XmhgnIƒ
ChnsS {]k-‡-am-Ip-∂p.
bqtdm-]y≥ XXz-Nn-¥-bnse {]_-e-im-JIfnsem∂mb {]Xn`mkhn⁄m\ob
(Phenomenology)Øns‚ ssk≤m-¥n-Ic
- n-semcm-fm-bn-cp∂ FUva≠v lt fpw (Edmund
Husserl), At±-l-Øns‚ Bi-b-ßsf kaql-im-kv{X-Øn-tebv-s°-Øn-°m≥ {]b-Xv\n®-hcpw tN¿∂-XmWv BZysØ Xmh-gn.
FUva≠v lt ƒ
th≠{X AwKoImcw e`n°msXt]mb
ssk≤m¥n-I≥ B¬{^Uv jpSvkv (Alfred
Schütz) Ch-cn-sem-cm-fm-bn-cp-∂p. At±lw
\yqtbm¿°nse Hcp C≥jp-d≥kv Iº\n
Poh-\-°m-c-\m-bn-cp-∂p. Cu Xmh-gn-bnse
as‰mcp {]ap-J≥ Ata-cn-°b
- nse jn°mtKm
\Kchmknbmbn-cp∂ tPm¿Pv sl¿_¿´v
aoUv (George Herbert Mead) Bbn-cp-∂p.
{]`m- j - I - s \∂ \ne- b n¬ t]sc- S p- s ØB¬{^Uv jpSvkv
¶nepw At±-l-Øns‚ cN-\-Iƒ shfn®w
I≠Xv ac-W-tijwam{Xw! Chsc IqSmsX,
aoUns‚ injy\mb sl¿_¿´v ªqa¿
(Herbert Blumer), Cu Xmh-gn-bpsS apJyh-‡m-°-fn-sem-cm-fm-bn-cp-∂p. s_¿°vte
(Berkeley) k¿hIemimebnse A[ym]I
\mbn- Ø o¿∂ At±lw sNdp- ∏ - I meØv
"jn°mtKm Ic-Sn-Iƒ' (Chicago Bears) F∂
^pSvt_mƒ Soan¬ Xmc-hp-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu
Xmh-gn-bpsS kao-]I
- mek¥-Xn-Iƒ [mcmfw
tPm¿Pv sl¿_¿´v aoUv hmb- \ - ° m- c p≈ ]o‰¿ _¿P¿, tXmakv
e°vam≥ (Thomas Luckmann) F∂n-h-cm-Wv.
]e-Xcw te_-ep-Iƒ°pIognemWv Cu XmhgnbpsS kaq-limkv{X-Z¿i\w cq]-sa-Sp-ØX
- .v Phenomenological Sociology, Symbolic
Interactionism, Ethnomethodology F∂n-ßs\ ]e imJ-I-fn-embn
AXv ]c-∂p-In-S∂
- p. s]mXpth ]d-™m¬ kmaq-ln-It- emIw a\pjy\n¿an-Xn-bm-sW∂v Cu Xmh-gn-bpsS h‡m-°ƒ Nq≠n-°m-Wn
-°p-∂p. `uXn-I-im-kv{X-Øns‚ bp‡n-bn¬ thcq-∂nb ]T-\-co-XnI-fp-]-tbm-Kn®v ]cn-]q¿W-ambn h¿Wn-°m-hp-∂-Xnepw F{Xtbm
A[nIw A¿∞-km-[y-X-Iƒ a\p-jy-\n¿an-X-amb Cu a\p-jy-k-aql-Øn-ep-s≠-∂pw Cu km[y-X-Iƒ A\-¥-am-sW∂pw ]d-bm-\mWv
26

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

C°q´¿ {ian-®n-´p-≈-Xv. a\p-jy-cpsS {]hr-Øn-Ifpw Bi-b-hn-\n-abhpw Ah¿ ]¶p-h-bv°p∂ "]›m-Ø-e-[m-cW' (background
understandings)Isf B{i-bn®p\n¬°p-∂p. B [mc-W-Isf ]q¿W
ambn hni-ZoI-cn-°mt\m hnh-cn-°mt\m \ap-°n-Xp-hsc km[n®n
´n√.1 \mw ]c-kv]c-an-S-s]-Sp-∂Xv Nn”-߃ ssIam-dn-s°m-≠mWv.
Ah-bm-Is´, A£-cm¿∞sØ adn-IS- °p∂p, Ihn™p\n¬°p∂p.
F¥mtWm hm°n-\m¬ ]d-bm-Ø-Xv , AXns\ B{i-bn-®mWv
a\p-jy-cpsS Bi-b-hn-\n-abw \S-°p-∂-Xv. a\p-jy-cpsS Bi-bhn-\n-abw A\n-hm-cy-ambpw "indexical' BsW∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv C°mcW-Øm-em-Wv. Nq≠p-hn-c¬ \o´p-tºmƒ, B hncen\∏pdw InS-°p∂
GtXm H∂n-te-°m-WXv \ofp-∂-Xv. AXpsIm≠v {]Xn-`m-k-hn-⁄m-\o-b-Øn-eq-∂nb
kaql imkv { Xw "kmam- \ y- _ p≤n'sb
AXy¥w _lp-am\tØmsSbmWv kao]n°p-∂-Xv. F√m-hcpw t_m[]q¿ha√msX
B¿Pn-°p∂ A¿∞-ßsf a\- n-\p-≈n¬
tImUp- I fmbn (code) ]cnh¿Ø\w
sNøm\pw Ahsb ho≠pw a‰p tImUp-Ifn¬ hmbn-s®-Sp-°m\pw a‰pw \sΩ klmbnsl¿_¿´v ªqa¿
°p∂ AXn-i-‡-amb D]-I-c-W-ß-fmWv
"kmam-\y-_p≤n' \ap°v {]Zm\w sNøp-∂sX∂v Cu Xmh-gn-bnse kaq-l-im-kv{X⁄¿ Ah-Imi-s∏Sp∂p.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ as‰mcp Xmh-gnbn¬ kmam- \ y- _ p- ≤ n- s b∂ k¶¬]w
C‰men-b≥ am¿IvknÃv Nn¥-I\pw hnπ-hIm-cn-bp-am-bn-cp∂ At‚m-Wntbm {Kmwjn
(1891-˛1937)-bpsS Nn¥-tbmSv tN¿∂p\n¬
°p∂p. \manhnsS I¬]n® AtXb¿∞
tXmakv e°vam≥
Øn¬ "kmam- \ y- _ p≤n'sb BZy- a mbn
\n¿hNn®Xv At±-l-am-bn-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww.
]{X-{]-h¿Ø-I\pw C‰-en-bnse ^mIvSdn
Iu¨kn¬ {]ÿm\Øns‚ ssk≤m¥n
I\pw kmwkvIm-cn-I -hn-a¿i-I\pw C‰m-enb≥ Iayq-Wn-Ãv- ]m¿´n P\-d¬ sk{I-´d
- nbpw
\nb-a-k-`m-km-am-Pn-I-\p-am-bn-cp∂p {Kmwjn.
Pohn-X-Øns‚ Ahkm\h¿j-߃ apt mfn\n-bpsS ^mknÃv XShdIfnembncp∂p
At±lw. apºp- X s∂ Zp¿_eambncp∂ At‚m-Wntbm {Kmwjn
27

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

At±-l-Øns‚ icocw Cu Ime-Øv IqSp-X¬ tcmK{KkvXam-bn.
Pbnen¬ \n∂v ]pdØp-h-∂-v BdmwZnhkw tdmanse Hcp ¢n\n°n¬ h®v 46-˛mw hb- n¬ At±lw acn-®p. At±lw krjvSn®
_u≤n-I-ss]XrI-Øns‚ `qcn`m-Khpw XS-hdbn¬hs®-gp-Xnb 36
t\m´p-]p-kvX-I-ß-fn-em-Wp-≠mbn-cp-∂-Xv. ih-kw-kvIm-c-Øn-\p≈
Hcp-°ßƒ°n-S-bn¬ Ahsb Pbn-en\p-≈n¬\n∂v AXohclkyambn ]pd-sØ-Sp-°p-Ib
- mbn-cp-∂p. \b-X{- ¥-tc-JI
- f
- b
- °p∂ Untπmam-‰nIv _mKv aptJ\ tamkvtIm- \-K-c-Øn-tebv°v Ah Ab°s∏´p. am¿IvknÃv Nn¥-bv°p-≈n¬ {Kmwjn°v apJy-ÿm-\-am-Wp≈Xv. apX-em-fn-ØØ
- ns‚ ]X\w Bk-∂a
- m-bn-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂v hnizkn-®n-cp-∂-h-cm-bncp∂p BZyImeam¿IvknÃpIƒ. AhcpsS Imew
Ah¿°p \¬Inb kqN-\-Ifpw B hn[-Øn-ep-≈-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p- ˛
1848se bqtdm-]y≥ Iem-]-߃, 1917se djy≥ hnπhw, 1920Ifnepw
30Ifnepw I\Ø {]l-c-ta¬∏n® kmº-Øn-I-am-μyw- ˛ C-h-sb√mw
apX-em-fnØ kº-Zvhy-hÿ A¥y-izmkw hen-°p-I-bm-sW∂
tXm∂emWp-f-hm-°n-bXv. F∂m¬ Cu {]Xn-k-‘n-I-sf-sb√mw
AXn-Po-hn-°m≥ apX-em-fn-Ø-Øn\pIgn-™p. AXp-sIm≠p-Xs∂
\ΩpsS Ime-Øn¬ apXem-fn-Ø-Øns‚ A¥yw ASpØ-Xmbn
{]hNn-°ms\fp-∏-a-√. BZy-Imeam¿Ivkn-Ãp-I-fpsS ImeØp \n∂v
\ΩpsS h¿Øam\ImeØntebv°v am¿IvknÃpNn¥sb am‰n
sb-gpXpIsb∂ ZpjvI-c-Zu-Xy-ta-s‰-SpØ Nn¥-I-cn-sem-cm-fm-bncp∂p {Kmwjn.
Cu ]cnWmaØn- s ‚ AYhm kw{IaWØns‚ ^e߃
At±lw "kmam-\y-_p≤n'sb \n¿h-Nn® coXn-bn¬\n∂p-Xs∂
hy‡amIp∂p≠v . "XXz⁄m\nIf√mØhcpsS XXzNn¥'
F∂mWv At±lw kmam-\y-_p-≤nsb hnti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv. Xß
fpsS kmaq-ln-I˛-kmw-kvIm-cnI]cn-k-c-ß-fn¬\n∂v km[m-c-W°m¿ kzmwio-I-cn-°p-∂-Xpw hna¿iIZrjvSn IqSm-sX- "kzm`mhn
I'ambn AwKoIcn°p∂Xpamb temIho£WamWXv. P\ßfpsS
kmam\y`mjbnepw aXhnizmkØnepw \mtSm-Sn-°-Y-I-fnepw a‰pw
AXv Dƒt®¿∂p-In-S-°p∂p. ]c-kv]-c-hn-cp-≤-ß-fmb hnizmk -˛at\m-`m-h-߃ Ae-t¶m-e-am-bn- Iq-Sn-°n-S-°p∂ Hcp tiJcam-WXv.
F∂m¬ \ne-hn-ep≈ A[n-Im-c-hy-hÿ Ah-bn¬ Nne-Xns\
s]men-∏n-®pIm´p-Ibpw a‰p Nne-Xns\ ad-®p-h-bv°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂Xp-sIm-≠mWv "kmam-\y-_p≤n'°v `mKn-I-am-sb-¶nepw sI´p-d-∏ps≠∂v \ap°p tXm∂p-∂-Xv. Cu hn[-Øn¬ am‰n-sb-gp-X-s∏-Sp∂
"kmam-\y-_p≤n'bneqsS hy‡n-I-fpsS [m¿anIs]cp-am-‰-co-XnIsf
Ah¿ AwKß-fmb kmaq-ln-I-hn-`m-K-ß-fp-tS-Xmb BZ¿i- ˛\nbahy-hÿtbmSv _‘n∏n°m≥ Ign-bp-∂p. H∏w, Cu BZ¿i28

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

˛- \nba-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ kaq-l-Øn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂ {]_-e-{]-Xy-bim-k{v X-Øns‚ (dominant ideology) Zni-bn-tebv°v Nmbp-Ibpw sNøp∂p. Cßs\ \ne-hn-ep≈ A[n-Im-c-L-S\ km[q-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp∂p.
hen-sbmcp hn`mKw _lp-P-\-ß-fp-sSbpw \n»-_vZhpw \njv{In-bhp-amb ]n¥pW (Nn-e-t∏mƒ Ah-cpsS kPo-hhpw k{In-b-hp-amb
]n¥p-W-bpw) t\Sn-sb-Sp-°m≥ AXn\pIgn-bp-∂p. ]t£ "kmam\y_p≤n'°v A[n-Im-c-L-S\bpsS {]h¿Ø-\w-aqew ssIhcp∂
sI´pd∏v F√m-bvt∏mgpw Xm¬°m-en-Ihpw Aÿn-c-hp-am-sW∂pw
Xo¿® Xs∂. ImcWw, apºp]d™Xpt]m-se, "kmam\y-_p≤n'
bn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp∂ Imcy-߃ ]e-t∏mgpw ]c-kv]-c-hncp≤ßfmWv.
AXp-sIm≠v ASnap-Sn- amdpwhn[w AXv Xncp-Øn-sb-gp-X-s∏-Sp-sa∂
km[yX Ft∏m-gp-ap-≠v. "{]Xy-bi
- mkv{X' (ideology)Øns‚ ap≥Ime
am¿IvknÃv ssk≤m-¥nI \n¿hN\ßfn¬ \n∂v Bib]cambn
apt∂dm≥ {Kmwjn-bpsS Cu \n¿h-N\w Gsd klm-bn-®n-´p-≠v.
_e{]-tbm-KsØ (coercion)bpw I]Smht_m[sØbpw (false
consciousness) ]cp-°≥a´n¬ Iq´n°pg®mWv BZyIme am¿IvknÃv
Nn¥-sb am‰n-sb-gp-Xp-Is
- b∂ "{]Xy-bi
- mkv{X'sØ hni-Zo-Ic
- n®Xv.
CXn¬\n∂v hen-sbm-c-I-e-amWv {Kmwjn-bpsS kmam-\y-_p-≤nk-¶¬]w t\Sn-b-Xv. ka-Im-enIapX-em-fn-ØsØ AXn-{Zp-X-ß-fmb
kmbp-[-k-a-c-ß-fn-eqsS IpSs™-dn-bm≥ Ign-bn-s√-∂-Xp-sIm≠v
Zo¿L-Imew \ofp∂ "war of position' Bh-iy-am-sW∂v At±lw
hmZn-®p. P\-߃ h®p-]p-e¿Øp∂ kmam-\y-_p-≤nsb ]pXn-b,
hnπ-h-I-c-amb coXn-I-fn¬ Xncp-Øn-sb-gp-Xm-\p≈ ka-c-am-Wn-Xv.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Ip-Spw-_-Øn¬ aq∂m-a-sXmcp Xmhgn, "kmam-\y_p≤n'sb {^©v \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄\pw kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄\p-amb ]ntbdn -t_m¿Zyp (Pierre Bourdieu)hns‚ ka-Im-en-I-Nn-¥bp-ambn _‘-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂p (A-t±lw 1930¬ P\n®p; 2002 P\phcn
23\v A¥-cn-®p). am¿Ivkn-khpw {]Xn-`m-k-hn-⁄m-\o-bhpw At±l-Øns‚ Nn-¥sb Hcp-t]mse kzm[o-\n-®n-cp-∂p. AƒPo-cn-b-bnse
I_nenb {]tZ-iØv 1950-I-fnepw 60-I-fnepw
At±lw \S- Ø nb P\kwkv I mc]T\
߃ "XXzNn¥bv ° p≈nse KthjWbm{X'Ifmbncp∂s{X. "{]tbmKØns‚
kn≤m¥w' (theory of practice) \n¿an°m\p≈ {ia- a m- b mWv At±l- a n- X ns\
I≠Xv. t_m¿Zyp kmam-\y-_p-≤nsb a\
- n- e m- ° p- ∂ Xv " doxa' F∂ k¶¬]Øn
eqsSbmWv. temIØns‚bpw PohnXØn]ntbdn -t_m¿Zyp
s‚bpw A\-h[n hi-ßsf \mw ]e-t∏mgpw
29

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

kzoI-cn°p∂Xv bmsXmcp tNmZyhpw IqSm-sX-bm-Wv- ˛- bmsXmcp
hni-Zo-I-c-Whpw IqSmsX ]e Pohn-Xmw-i-ß-sfbpw \mw \n»-_vZambn AwKo-I-cn-°p-∂p. AØcw Pohn-X-`m-K-߃ as‰mcp hn[Øn-emIm-sa∂ Nn¥-t]mepw \mw h®p]pe¿Øp-∂p-≠m-hn-√.
\ΩpsS PohnX- Ø nse tNmZyw sNø- s ∏- S m- Ø , "kzm`m- h nIw
am{X'sa∂ AwKo-Imcw t\Snb `mK-sØ-bmWv t_m¿Zyp "doxa'
F∂phnfn-°p-∂-Xv. "bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I'-\mWv Xm≥ F∂v Hcmƒ ]dbp-tºmƒ "bmYm-ÿn-XnI'a√mØ BibtemI߃ thsdbp
s≠∂v ]tcm£amsb¶nepw Abmƒ kΩ-Xn-°p-∂p-≠v. AXpt]mse Xm≥ "Abm-Ym-ÿn-XnI'bmsW∂v Hcp-hƒ Ah-Im-is∏-´m¬ "bmYm-ÿn-XnI'amb ImgvN-∏m-Sp-Iƒ thsd \ne-hn-eps≠∂ ]tcm£-k-Ω-X-am-W-Xv. ]t£ "doxa' F∂m¬, F√m
-Iq-´cpw Hcp-t]mse {]tbmKØn-¬ Aw-Ko-I-cn-°p-∂, F∂m¬, Hcp]t£, \mw {]Xy-£-Øn¬ Xncn-®-dn-bm-Ø, as‰m-cp-X-c-Øn¬
Nn¥n- ° m- \ p≈ km[y- X - s b- t ∏mepw AwKo- I - c n- ° m≥ \sΩ
Ai‡-cm-°p-∂ [mc-W-I-fpsS afi-e-amWv.
kmaq-lnIkn-≤m-¥-N¿®-I-fn¬ ho≠pw ho≠pw Db¿∂p-h-cp∂
Hcp IS-¶Y
- b
- mWv \n¿hm-lI
- X
- zw (agency), LS\ (structure) F∂nh
XΩn-ep≈ _‘-sØ-∏‰nbp≈ B ]gb tNmZyw. km[m-cW
P\-ß-fpsS {]hr-Øn-I-fn¬ Ah-cpsS kzX{¥ C—m-i-‡nbpw
kmaq-lnIÿm-]-\-߃ ASn-t®¬∏n-°p∂ ]cn-anXn-Ifpw Htc
-k-abw \ne-\n¬°p-∂p-sh-∂-Xns\ Fßs\ hni-Zo-I-cn°msa∂
tNmZy- a m- W - X v . LS- \ m- ] - c - a mb kΩ¿±ß- s fbpw P\- ß - f psS
\n¿hml-I-Xz-sØbpw ]c-kv]cw CW-°p-∂-Xn\v doxa klm-bn°p-∂p-s≠-∂mWv t_m¿Zyp-hns‚ A`n-{]m-bw. LS-\m-]-c-amb ]cnan-Xn-Iƒ P\-ß-fpsS sXc-s™-Sp-°¬ km[y-X-Iƒ°v AXn-cnSp-∂p. Cu AXn-cp-Iƒ XnI®pw "kzm`m-hnI'amsW∂ t_m[yw
Ah-cn¬ doxa hgn krjvSn°s∏Sp∂p. At∏mƒ LS\bpsS ]cnan
Xn°p-≈n¬ \n∂p-sIm≠v Ah¿ \S-Øp∂ sXc-s™-Sp-∏p-Isf
Xß-fpsS "kzX-{¥-amb Xocp-am\'ambn-°m-Wm≥ Ah¿°v t{]cW
bp-≠m-Ip-∂p. Aßs\ hkvXp-\n-jvThpw (objective) LS\m]c
hpamb (structural) AXn-cp-Isf sX‰n-≤-cn®pImWm\pw Ahsb
Xs∂-Øm≥ sXcs™-Sp-Ø, hy‡n-\n-jvT-ß-fmb (subjective)
Xocp- a m- \ - ß fmbn FÆm\pw P\- ß ƒ t{]cn- ∏ n- ° - s ∏- S p- ∂ p.
F∂m¬ doxabneq-sS-bp-fhmIp∂ kmam\y_p≤n apXemfnØ
]q¿h˛]cºcmKX kaqlßfnse "kvXw`n∏n°s∏´' kmaqlnI
_‘ßsfbpw "]ckv ] c hnizmk'Øneq- ∂ nb kº- Z v L - S - \
-sbbpw Nn´bmbn \S-Øm≥ klm-bn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-¶n-epw, apX-em-fnØ-Øn¬ AXns‚ ÿnXn sa®-a-√. apX-em-fn-Ø-Øn\pIogn¬
Ne-\m-fl-I-am-bn-Øo¿∂ kmaq-lnI-_-‘-߃, AXns‚ "kvt\l30

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

iq- \ yhpw ]Wm- [ n- j v T n- X hp'amb kºZv h yh- ÿ F∂nh- b n
-te-bv°p≈ am‰w krjvSn-°p∂ {]Xn-k-‘n-bv°n-S-bn¬ doxa
bpsS ]nSn Ab-™p-t]m-Ip-∂p.
aq∂p-Xcw tNmZy-ß-fmWv Cu aq∂p Xmh-gn-I-ƒ D∂-bn-°p-∂Xv.
BZysØ Xmh-gn-bmb {]Xn-`m-k-hn-⁄m-\obw tNmZn-°p∂p :
"]q¿W-ambn hni-Zo-I-cn-°m≥ Ign-bp-∂-Xnepw A[n-Iamb Adnhv
a\p-jy¿°p-≠m-Ip-∂-sX-ßs\?' c≠m-asØ Xmh-gn ˛ -am¿IvknÃv
kmaq-lnINn¥ ˛ Db¿Øp∂ tNmZy-an-XmWv : "Xß-tfmSv A\oXn
Im´p∂ kmaq-lnIhyhÿIƒ°v Iogvhgßn \n¬°m≥ P\-߃
k∂-≤-cm-hp-∂-sX-ßs\'? P\-kw-kvIm-c-]-T-\-sa∂ (ethnography)
aq∂mw Xmhgn C{]-Imcw tNmZn-°p∂p : "P\-ß-fpsS hy‡n\njvTsXc-s™-Sp-°-ep-Iƒ Ah-c-\p-`-hn-°p∂ hkvXp-\njvT]cnan-Xn-I-fp-ambn CW-ßn-\n¬°p-∂-sX-ßs\'? kmam-\y-_p-≤n-sb°p-dn-®p≈ Cu aq∂p ho£-W-߃ F¥mWp kqNn-∏n-°p-∂Xv?
AXv i‡hpw hym]-I-hp-am-sW-∂p-Xs∂. a‰n-S-ß-fn¬ th≠{X
Kuc-h-tØmsS ]cnKWn°s∏´n´ns√¶nepw B ÿm]\Øns‚
i‡nsbbpw hym]vXnsbbpw Cu aq∂pho£-W-ßfpw \∂mbn
shfn-®-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂p-≠v. icn°pw ]d-™m¬, kmam-\y_p≤n
sb∂Xv kaq-l-imkv{XØns‚ tI{μXm¬]cyam-Wv-;- km-aqlnI
Nn¥-bpsS lrZ-b-`m-K-Øp-X-s∂-bmWv AXns‚ ÿm\w. kaq-lim-kv{XsØ ]e-hn-[-Øn¬ \n¿h-Nn-°m-sa-¶nepw "kmam-\y-_p≤nbpsS hna¿i\w' (critique of common sense) F∂ \n¿h-N-\-amWv
G‰hpw DNn-Xw. F\n-t°-‰hpw {]nb-s∏´ kaq-l-im-kv{X-\n¿h
-N\w CXpX-s∂. am{Xa√, kaqlimkv{Xsa∂m¬ s]mbv°men
t∑segp∂≈p∂ kmam-\y-_p≤n am{X-am-sW∂ [mc-W-bn¬
A¥¿eo-\a
- mb c≠m-asØ hncpt≤m-‡nsb AXv \∂mbn ]pdØpsIm≠p-h-cn-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.
Cu [m-c-W-bpsS {]iv\w, imkv{X-Øns‚ ]T\hkvXphns\
imkv{Xw Xs∂-bmbn Nn{Xo-I-cn-°m≥ AXp {ian-°p∂p F∂XmWv. `qK¿`-imkv{Xw ]md-s°-´p-I-sf-°p-dn®p ]Tn-°p∂p; AXn\m¬ `qK¿`-im-kv{X-sa-∂m¬ ]md-s°-´p-IƒXs∂ F∂v [cn-°p∂{X A_-≤-amWn-Xv. F∂m¬ Cu kmay-I¬]-\-t]mepw sX‰n≤m-c-Wm-P-\-I-amWv, ImcWw AXv kmam-\y-_p-≤nbpw kaq-l
-im-kv{Xhpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘-Øns‚ k¶o¿W-kz-`m-hsØ shfnhm-°p-∂n-√. ]md-s°-´p-Iƒ Xß-fpsS at\m-\n-esb kzm[o-\n-®pIfbptam F∂ `oXn `qK¿`-im-kv{X-⁄¿°p-≠m-tI-≠-Xn-√. ]t£
kmam-\y-_p≤n Xß-fpsS at\m-\n-e-Isf kzm[o-\n-°ptam F∂
DXvIWvT kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿ t]dntb Xocq. Cu DXvI-WvTbv°v
efn-Xtam ÿnctam Bb ]cn-lm-c-an-√ Xm\pw.
31

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

"kmam-\y-_p≤n'sb∂m¬ a‰p≈hcpsS efnXa\kvI-Xsb
As√-¶n¬ ip≤-KX
- n-sb-°p-dn-°p∂ ]pXn-sbmcp hm°p-am-{X-as
- öv
ad-°m≥ Ffp-∏-am-Wv. B¿°pw Cu ad-hnsb Ffp-∏-Øn¬ {]Xntcm-[n-°m-\m-hn-√- ˛ -Im-cWw kaq-l-Øn¬ Pohn-°pI F∂-Xn\¿∞w kmam-\y-_p-≤n-°p-≈n¬ Ncn-°pI F∂m-Wv. B¿°n-anUokv F∂ ]pcm-X\ {Ko°p-im-kv{X-⁄≥ Hcn-°¬ ]d™p :
th≠{X hen∏-ap≈ Hcp DtØm-e-\-Zfipw \n¬°ms\mcnShpw
Xcn-I, Cu `qansb Rm\p-b¿Øn-°m-Wn-°mw. ]t£ B¿°n-anUokv Bh-iy-s∏´ B CSw ˛- `qan°v ]pdØpamdn \n¬°m-\p≈
CSw-, km-am-\y-_p-≤n°v ]pdØp ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ CSw, ]-cn-ip-≤hpw
]cn]q¿Wim-kv{Xobhpamb kaq-lhn-⁄m\w Is≠-Øm\pw
{]tbm-Kn-°m-\p-ap≈ CSw -˛- C-√Xs∂! C∂v C°mcyw kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-⁄¿ AwKoIcn-°p-∂p≠v. ap≥Imeß-fn¬ kmaqlnI
imkv{X⁄¿ "aqey\nct]£X' (value-neutrality)bv°pth≠n \SØnb Xnc-®n¬ aco-Nn-Ibv°p ]n∂m-se-bp≈ ]m®n¬ am{X-am-bncp-∂p. F¥p-sIm-s≠-∂m¬, kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-ß-sf√mw Ah
hni-I-e\w sNøm-\m-{K-ln-°p∂ kaq-l-Øns‚ Xs∂ D¬]∂ß-fm-Wv. kmaq-lnI]-›m-Ø-e-Øns‚ kzm[o-\sØ Hgn-hm°m≥
Ah-bv°pIgn-bn-√. AXn-\m¬ aqey-\n-c-t]-£X F∂ Akm-[yamb BZ¿isØ hrYm ]n≥Xp-S-cp-∂-Xn\p]I-cw, kmaq-lnI
-hn-⁄m-\-\n¿am-W-Øn¬ NmbvhpIfpw ]£]m-X-ß-fp-ap-≠m-Im\p≈ km[y-Xsb AwKo-I-cn-®p-sIm≠v Ah-bpsS Dd-hn-S-ßsf
Ign-hXpw kq£vahpw ]q¿W-hp-amb coXn-bn¬ hnh-cn-°m≥ {ian°p-∂-XmWv DNn-Xw. kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-Ønse km{º-Zm-bn-I-kao]-\-a-\p-k-cn®v t]tcm apJtam C√mØ "\njv]-£-\ne' F∂ apJw
aqSn-b-Wn™p- sIm≠mWv kmaq-lnIimkv{X⁄¿ {]hrØn
sbSp-°p∂-Xv. F∂m¬ CXn¬\n∂p Xo¿Øpw hyXy-kvX-am-bn,
kmaq-lnIimkv{X-⁄¿ "Ac-ßn\p]n∂n-sem-'Xp-°p∂ F√m
LS-I-ß-sfbpw shfn-®-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-c-W-sa∂v Cu ]pXnb kmaqlnI-imkv{X-k-ao-]\w \njvI¿jn-°p∂p. AXm-bXv Kth-j-IcpsS kzIm-cy-X∑ (identity), kmaq-lnI-]-›mØ-ew, Kth-j-W{]-{In-b-bpsS _mly-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ apX-embh ap∂ntebv°v B\
bn°s∏Sp∂p. AtXkabw, NmbvhpIsf G‰hpw ]cnanXs∏Sp
Øm≥ \sΩ klm-bn°m\nS-bp≈ coXn-im-kv{X-Øn-\m-bp≈
(methodology) Xnc-®n-en\pw \mw B°w Iq´p∂p. H∏w kmam\y_p-≤n°v apI-fn-ep-b-cm≥ \mw \S-Øp∂ {ia-߃ F√m-bvt]mgpw
`mKn-Ihpw Xm¬°m-en-Ihpw am{X-am-sW∂ Xncn-®-dnhv Cu Xnc
®n-ens‚ hnim-e-]-›m-Ø-e-ambn {]h¿Øn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂p.
kmam-\y-_p≤n kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿°v \¬Ip∂ Hcp sa®w,
32

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

AXv kaq-lØnse F√mØns\bpw Hcpt]mse {Kkn-°p∂
aSt°m Npfnthm C√mØ GI-in-em-cq-]-a-s√-∂-Xm-Wv. Hmtcm
Ime-L´- hpw kmaq-lnI-hn-`m-Khpw {]tXy-I ]
- ›
- m-Øe
- hpw tNmZyw
sNø-s∏SmØ icnsX‰pIsf°pdn®p≈ khntijmht_m[w
D¬]mZn∏n°mdp-≠v. kmam-\y-_p≤n F√m-h¿°pw F√m-Im-e-ßfnepw ÿe-ß-fnepw H∂√ F∂ Cu Dƒ°mgvN kaq-l-im-kv{Xhn-Zym¿∞n-Isf kw_-‘n-®n-St- Ømfw hfsc {][m-\a
- m-Wv. ImcWw
\nc-h[n AS™ hrØ-ßfnembn ÿnXn-sN-øp∂ kmam-\y_p-≤n-bpsS A¿∞Xeßfnte°v IS∂pIbdm≥ \sΩ klmbn
°p∂ "B∏m'WXv. ]e hyXykvX ho£-W-ß-fn¬\n∂p-sIm≠v
kmam-\y-_p-≤nbpsS ^eßsf ]Tn°m≥ \ap°pIgnbpw; Hcp
ho£-W-Øn\p ]Icw as‰m-∂p-]-tbm-Kn®p t\m°m\pw \ap°p
km[n-°pw. hyXy-kvX- km-aq-lnI\n-e-I-fn¬ \n¬°p∂ hy‡nI-fp-sStbm kwL-ß-fp-sStbm temIsØ ImWm\pw Fgp-ØpImcpw Iem-Im-c∑
- mcpw sNøm-dp-≈X
- p-t]mse \mw Pohn-°p∂ temIØn¬\n∂v Xptemw hyXy-kvX-amb as‰mcp temIsØ hn`m-h\w
sNøm\pw \ap°p Ignbpw. HcpXcw kmam\y_p≤n°p≈n¬
t_m[]q¿hw \nebpd∏n®psIm≠v as‰m-cp-Xcw kmam\y-_p-≤nsb
hni-Ie\w sNøm\pw Ign-bpw. Ch XΩn-ep≈ AIew \¬Ip∂
shfn-®-ap-]-tbm-Kn®v km[m-cW Ah-ÿ-bn¬ Xncn-®-dn-bm≥ Ffp∏a-√mØ ]eXns‚bpw tcJm-Nn-{X-߃ hc-bv°m≥ \ap°pIgn-bpw.
F∂m¬ CXv Ffp-∏-a√; kzm`mhnIhpw A\m-bmkhpambn "Xmt\
hcp∂' {]hr-Ønbpa√. adn-®v, imkv{Xobkw-KoX-⁄¿ \S-Øp∂
km[- \ - t ]mse \nXyhpw Nn´- b mbn \S- t Ø≠ ]cn{i- a - a mWv
CXn-\m-h-iyw. "kaqlimkv{Xw' F∂ Cu \maw, {Ia_≤amb
Cu ]cnioe\Øns‚ t]cpIq-SnbmWv.
kmam-\y-_p-≤nbpsS an\pkam¿∂Xpw hgp°p-∂Xpamb aXnep
Iƒ Ibdm≥ B{Kln°p∂h¿°v as‰mcp ]gp-XpIqSn AXp \¬Ip∂p≠v. A[nImc_‘ßfn¬ AXv F√mbvt∏mgpw Dƒs∏-´ncn
°p∂p F∂ hkvXpXbmWXv. kaq-lØnse G‰hpw {]tbmK
£-ahpw Dd-∏m¿∂-Xp-amb A[oiXzcq]߃ F√mw BXy¥n-I
ambn kmam\y_p≤nsb B[mcam°p∂hbmWv; Xncn-®v, kmam\y
_p≤nbpsS hensbmcp ]¶v A[nImcØns‚ Znibnte°v Nm™p
\n¬°p∂pap-≠v. F∂m¬ Cu ]c-kv]-c-k-lm-b-_‘w A\nhm-cytam ÿnctam A√ ˛- km-l-N-cy-߃ amdp-∂-X-\p-k-cn®v
Ahbpw amdp-∂p. kmam\y_p≤nbn¬ \nehnep≈ {]_-e-hyh
ÿItfmSv hntcm[w ]pe¿Øp∂ \nch[n LSIßfps≠∂
Imcyw Gsd {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p-∂p≠v; ImcWw, A[n-Im-cØ
- n-s\Xnsc-bp≈ sNdp-Øp-\n-¬]n-s‚bpw Iem-]-Øn-s‚bpw km[y-X-Iƒ
33

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

Ch-bn-emWv. F¶nepw A[n-Im-chpw kmam-\y-_p-≤nbpw XΩnep≈
kw_‘sØ apXseSp- Ø psIm≠v , A[nImcØns‚ km∂n
[ysØ {]tbmP\s∏SpØns°m≠v , kmam\y_p≤n°pta¬
hoWpInS°p∂ ad \o°nt\m°mw. 1980Ifnse ln‰v kn-\n-a-bm-bncp∂ anÿ C¥y-bn¬ A\n¬ I]q¿ Ah-X-cn-∏n® IYm-]m-{XsØ-t∏m-se-bmWv kmam-\y-_p-≤n. an°-kabhpw A{]-Xy-£-\mbn°-gn-bp-∂, F∂m¬ Nph∂shfn-®-Øn¬am{Xw {]Xy-£-\m-Ip∂
Hcp hy‡n-bpsS thjambncp∂p A\n¬ I]q-dn-t‚-Xv. AXp-t]mse
an°-hmdpw AZr-iy-am-bn-cn-°p-∂ kmam-\y-_p-≤n-sb A[n-Im-c_‘ßfpsS shfn-®Øn¬ {]Xy£am°m≥ \ap°pIgnbpw.
F¶nepw kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\v kmam\y_p≤nbpsS hna¿i-\sa∂ \ne Iev]n°ptºmgp≠mIp∂ Hcp A]ISkm[yXsb ]cn
KWnt°≠Xp≠v. kaqlimkv{XsØ Cßs\ \n¿hNn°ptºmƒ
kmam-\y-_p≤n F√m-bvt]mgpw sXt‰m Ifthm BsW-∂pw AXn\m¬ AXns\ \nc-¥cw Xncp-tØ-≠-Xp-s≠-∂p-ap≈ tXm∂-ep-fhm-Im-\n-S-bp-≠v. t_m[-]q¿hw sNdp-t°≠ Hcp am\-knI{]h-WX-bs{X CXv. kmam-\y-_p-≤n-sb-∏-‰n-bp≈ {]k-‡-amb Imcyw
CXmWv : \mw ]cntim[\bv°p hnt[bam°m≥ Iq´m-°m-Ø, ]et∏mgpw \ΩpsS At_m[Øn¬ ÿnXnsN-øp-∂ hnizmkßsfbpw
A`n{]mbßsfbpamWv "kmam\y-_p≤n'sb∂p hnfn®phcp∂Xv.
AhbpsS D≈S°w F√mbvt]mgpw Bt£]m¿lß-f-√- ˛ -]t£,
AX√ {]iv\w. Cu hnizm-k-ß-fnepw A`n-{]m-b-ß-fnepw \mw
FØn-t®-cp-∂Xv Btem-N-\-Iq-Sm-sX-bm-Wv. ]e-t∏mgpw t\m´-∏niIv aqetam ioew aqetam hnh-c-t°-Sp-sImt≠m BWv \mw Ah
h®p]pe¿Øp-∂-Xv ˛ AXmWv {]iv\w. hna¿i-\-Øns‚ e£yw,
"ap≥hn[n'bmbn°nS°p∂Xns\ "]n≥hn[n'bmbn am‰pI F∂XmWv. kmam\y_p≤nsb bp‡nklambn hniIe\w sNbvXp
Ignbptºmƒ AXns‚ ]e Awi-ßfpw kzmK-Xm¿lßfmsW∂p
\mw Is≠-Øn-tb-°mw. As√-¶n¬, \ΩpsS temI-ho-£-WsØ
hnIr-X-am-°p∂ ]e sX‰n-≤m-c-W-Ifpw \nd-™p-In-S-°p-∂p-sh∂v
\mw AXn¬ Is≠-Øn-tb-°mw. AXp-a-s√-¶n¬ CXp-c-≠-pa√
kmam\y-_p-≤n-bn-se∂ \nK-a\Øntem AXn\p≈n¬ kw`-hn
°p∂-sXs¥∂v Xncn®dnbm≥ Ffp∏as√∂ Xo¿∏n¬Øs∂tbm
FØnt®¿t∂°mw. F¥pXs∂bmbmepw Hcp Imcyw hy‡
amWv : Cu hni-I-e\w \S-∂-tijap≈ Ahÿbn¬, F¥mWp
sNtø-≠-sX∂p Nn¥n°p∂ thfbn¬, kaq-limkv{Xw henb
KpW-sam∂pw sNøn-√m-bn-cn-°mw. F∂m¬ AXn\p Iev]n°s∏´n
´p≈ [¿aw, hni-I-e\]q¿hmhÿbn¬\n∂v, AXmbXv Adnhn
√mbva-bpsS L´Øn¬\n∂v, ]pdØpNmSm≥ \sΩ klmbn°pI
34

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

F∂-Xm-Wv. ]cn-tim[\miq\y-amb PohnXw kwkvImc-iq\y
amsW∂v {Ko°p- X - X z⁄m\nIƒ IcpXnbncp∂p; \ΩpsS
PohnXØnse C\nbpw ]cn-tim[\mhnt[b-amImØ hi-ßsf
Xncn®dnbm\pw Ahsb tNmZy-hnt[bam°m\pw kaq-limkv{Xw
klmbn°p∂p.
temIsØ t\m°n°mWm≥ \mw D]tbmKn°p∂, tNmZyw
sNøs∏SmØ ap≥hn[nIfpsS kpXmcyamb Nn√ns\ hntijn
∏n°m\p≈ H‰-hm°mWv "kmam-\y-_p≤n'sb¶n¬, B Nn√n-t∑epw
AXn\-∏pdw InS-°p∂ temI-Øn-t∑epw Hcpt]mse ZrjvSn-bp-d-∏n°m≥ {ian-°p∂ Akm-[m-c-W-amb ˛ "hne-£Ww' t]mep-amb -˛t\m´Øn\p ]dbp∂ H‰hm°s{X "kaq-l-imkv{Xw' AYhm
Sociology. Be-¶m-cn-I-am-bn-∏-d-™m¬, kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿ "Cc´
ZrjvSn'°mcmWv ˛ HcpXcw ]mfnt\m´w \S-Øp-∂-h¿; khn-ti-jamb "tIm¶Æp'≈h¿. kaImenI C¥y- b n¬ I≠p- ] n- S n- °
-s∏´ AXn-k-º∂ k¶-c-`m-j-I-fn-sem-∂mb "_nlmdn'bn¬ tIm¶Æp≈hsc hntijn∏n°m≥ "e≠≥ t\m°nbm¬ ]mcnkv
ImWp∂h¿' F∂p ]d-bm-dp-≠v. AXp-t]mse kaq-l-im-kv{X
-⁄¿ "e≠≥ t\m°n-bm¬' am{Xw t]mcm, "]mcnkv ImWm≥'
IqSn Ah¿°v IgnbWw.
C¥y≥ kaq-lsØ "tIm¶Æn'eqsS t\m°p∂ coXn ]cn-N-bn°m-\p≈ £Ww Cu ]pkvXIw apt∂m-´p-h-bv°p-∂p. B[p-\n-IX
(modernity), tZiw (nation), PmXn, h¿Kw, BtKm-f-h¬IcWw
(globalization) apX-emb Bib-ßfpw ÿm]\ßfpw kzmX-{¥ym\-¥c C¥y-bpsS Ac-\q-‰m-≠n-\n-S-bn¬ k©cn® am¿K-߃,
kzoI-cn® cq]-t`-Z-߃ Chsb Ah-tem-I\w sNøm-\mWv Cu
]pkvXIw {ian-°p-∂-Xv. c≠p-Xcw kmam-\y-_p-≤n-Isf shfn-®Øp-sIm-≠p-h-cm-\p≈ {iaamWnhnsS. H∂v, ta¬]-d™ Bi-b߃°pw ÿm]-\-߃°pw Np‰pw cq]-sa-SpØ kmam-\y-_p-≤nsb;
c≠v, Cu ÿm]-\-ß-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-]-T-\-ß
-fpsS kmam\y-_p-≤n-sb. CXp-Iq-Sm-sX, kzIm-cy-Po-h-Ncn-{X-߃
Iptd°qsS hnimeamb kmaq-lnINcn{XsØ apdn-®pIS°p∂
CSßfntebv°v shfn®w hoim≥ Cu ]pkvXIw "kaq-l-imkv{X
`m-h\'sb (sociological imagination) Iq´n∏nSn°p∂p.
F√m-‰n\pap]cn, hmb\°mcn¬ tNmZywsNøs∏-SmØ F√m-‰nt\mSpw Pm{KXbm¿∂ {i≤, Ah[m\Xbm¿∂ _lpam\w
F∂nh hf¿Øm\pw AhchscØs∂ tNmZywsN- ø m- \ p≈
hmk\-bp-W¿Øm\pw CXv DZy-an-°p-∂p. Npcp-°n-∏d
- ™
m¬ CØcw
"tIm¶Æv' "InSn-e≥ kw`h'amIp-∂-sX-¥p-sIm-s≠∂p ]d-™p35

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

X-cm\pw "Cc´-ImWp∂'sXß-s\-sb∂v Im´n-Ø-cm-\p-amWv Cu
]pkvXIw {ian-°p-∂Xv.
C¥y≥ kaqlimkv{XØns‚ hnNn{Xhnjak‘n
CXp-hsc ]d-™Xv kaqlimkv{XØns‚ BtKm-fXe-sØ°p-dn-®m-Wv; Iptd-°qSn IrXy-ambn∏d-™m¬, km¿h-{Xn-I-{]-k‡n
Ah-Im-i-s∏-Sp∂ ]m›m-Xy-k-aq-l-im-kv{X-sØ-°p-dn-®v. ]t£,
kwkvIm-csØ ]Tn-°p∂ as‰√m imkv{X-ß-sfbpwt]mse kaqlim- k v { X- Ø n- s ‚bpw km¿h- { Xn- I - X (universalism) ]q¿W- a - √ .
]m›m-tXy-Xc kml-Ncy-ß-fn¬, hnti-jn®v C¥y-sb-t∏m-ep≈
ap≥- A-[n-\n-thicmPy-ß-fn¬ (ex-colonial) Nne hyXy-kvX-X-I-tfmsS-bmWv AXv Ah-X-cn-®n-cn-°p-∂-Xv. kaq-l-imkv{Xw C¥y-bn¬
kzoI-cn® \ne-sbbpw AXn-\p-≈n¬ cq]-sa-SpØ {]tXy-I k
- mam\y_p-≤n-sbbpw Cu hyXymk߃ Gsd kzm[o-\n-®n-´p-≠v. AXn\m¬ Ahsb A`n-kwt_m-[\ sNtø-≠n-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
\nL-≠p-hn¬ "hnj-a-k‘n' (predicament) F∂m¬ "hnjaw
]nSn-®Xpw Ipg-bv°p-∂Xpw ]co-£n-°p-∂X
- p-amb kμ¿`w' F∂t{X
A¿∞w. C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{XsØ _m[n® hnj-a-k-‘n°v
aq∂p hi-ß-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. ASp-Øv _-‘-s∏´p\n¬°p-∂-h-bpw
Cu ⁄m\-im-Jbv°v khn-ti-j-cq]w \¬Ip-∂-h-bp-am-W-h.
H∂m- a sØ hiw, A[n- \ n- t h- i - I m- e - L - ´ - (colonial era)Øn¬
\n∂v kaq-l-imkv{X-Øn\v ss]Xr-I-ambn e`n® "Cc-´-apJ'amWv;
c≠m-a-tØXv, kaql-im-kv{X-sØbpw \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-sØbpw
tN¿Øp-hbv°p∂ coXn-bpsS {]tXyI ^e-ß-fm-Wv ˛ C¥ybn¬
am{Xw ImW-s∏-Sp∂h. aq∂matØXv C¥y≥ kaqlimkv{Xw
"th≠{X C¥y≥' Xs∂tbm F∂ Bi¶bpw. AXv C∂pw
\ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≠v.
kzX{¥ C¥y-bn¬ Hcp kmaq-lnI-im-kv{X-⁄m-\-im-J-bmbn
]p\xÿm- ] n- ° - s ∏´ thf- b n¬ kaq- l - i mkv { Xw kmº- Ø nI
im-kv{X-Øn\pw Ncn-{X-Øn-\p-an-S-bn¬ AI-s∏´pt]msb-∂mWv
tXm∂p-∂Xv. kmº-ØnIimkv{Xhpw Ncn{Xhpw C¥y≥ tZiob
{]ÿm\-Øn¬ \n∂v [mcmfw Du¿Phpw Du°pw t\Sn-sb-Sp-Øncp- ∂ p. km{am- P yXzØn- s \- X n- s c- b p≈ _u≤nIhyhlm- c sØ
i‡-am-°m-\p≈ ]pXp-]p-Ø≥hm-Z-߃ sa\-bp∂ ⁄m\-im-Jbmbn kmº-ØnIimkv{Xw IW-°m°-s∏-´p -˛- ap-XemfnØbpK
Ønse {]_-e kmaqlnIimkv{Xsa∂ BtKmf\nebv°\pkrX
ambncp∂p CXv. B[p-\n-I-tZ-io-b-hm-Z-Øns‚ (nationalism) Bhiym-\p-k-cWw \h-Pm-X-tZ-i-Øns‚ `qX-Im-esØ ]p\x-kr-jvSn°m-\p≈ Npa-Xe Ncn-{X-Øn\v \¬I-s∏-´p. Cu c≠p ⁄m\36

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

im-JI
- ƒ°pw kzmX{¥ym-\¥
- c C¥y-bn-tebv°v XßfpsS ⁄m\
\n¿amW]cn-]m-Sn-Isf A\m-bmkw \o´n-sb-Sp-°m≥ Ign-bp-am-bncp∂p F∂-XmWv {][m-\Im-cyw. kmº-ØnIimkv{Xw s\lvdphns‚ tkmjy-en-k-Øns‚ B[m-c-hpw C¥ysb∂ B[p-\n-ItZ-i-sØ-∏‰n kwkm-cn-°m≥ \map-]-tbm-Kn® apJy-`m-j-bp-am-bnØo¿∂p. tZi-Øn\v ]q¿h Ime-{]-k-‡n-tbm-Sp-Iq-Snb Poh-N-cn{Xw
cNn-°pI F∂ ZuXyw Ncn{Xw Gs‰-Sp-Øp. A[n-\n-thiNcn-{XcN-\m-co-Xn-im-kv{X-Øns‚ "Zbm-]q¿h-ap≈ ]cn-K-W\'sb X≈n°- f - ™ p- s Im≠v ]ehn[ {]tZ- i - ß ƒ, h¿K߃, {]ÿm\
߃ F∂nhbpsS Ncn{XsØ tZiobhmZØn\pth≠n Ncn{X
]finX¿ hos≠SpØp.
C∏-d™ ⁄m\-im-J-I-sf-b-t]-£n®v XnI®pw hyXy-kvX
-am-sbmcp ss]Xr-I-am-bn-cp∂p kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn-t‚-Xv. Bg-ta-dnb
kμn-Kv[m-h-ÿbpw Ign-hv sI-Sp-Øn-°-f-bp∂ kz˛-X-∑bpw (selfidentity) AXn\v ss]Xr-I-ambn e`n-®p-sh∂v tXm∂p-∂p. A[n-\nthi C¥y-bn¬ X\-Xmb km∂n[yw AXn-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-s√∂
hkvXp-X-bp-ambn CXp _‘-s∏-´p-In-S-°p-∂p. kmaq-lnI-\-c-hw-iimkv{Xw (social anthropology), C≥tUm-fPn (Indology) F∂o
⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ°p Iogvs]´m-bn-cp∂p kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚
\ne. A`y- k v X hnZycmb C¥y°m¿ Cu c≠p ⁄m\imJ
Isf c≠phn[ØnemWv kzoIcn®Xv. HcphiØv tZiob htcWy-h¿Kw ]uc-kvXyhmZ]camb (Orientalist) C≥tUmfPnsb
lm¿±ambn kzmKXw sNbvXp. C¥y≥/lnμp-kw-kvIm-c-Øns‚
¢mknIv Ie, XXz-Nn¥, kmlnXyw F∂n-hsb tcJs∏SpØn
kq£n°m\pw AXns\ Bth-i-tØmsS BtL-mjn°m\pw Xm¬
]-cy-s∏´ Cu ⁄m\imJ-tbmSv tZio-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ°v henb aaX
tXm∂nbXv shdp-sXb√. ImcWw C¥y≥/lnμp-aX ]mc-ºcyØn\pw kwkvIm-cØ
- n\pw Np‰p-amWv C¥y≥ tZio-bX
- b
- psS {]Xybimkv{Xw Xncn-™-Xp-Xs∂. C¥y-bpsS kmwkvIm-cn-I-˛-B-flob
D¬Ir-jvS-Xsb ]m›mXy-tem-I-Øns‚ \ntj-[n-°m-\m-hmØ
kmº-Øn-I-˛-`u-XnI D¬Ir-jvS-X-ItfmSv Iq´n-bn-W-°n-s°m≠v
tZiob]cn-]mSn \n¿an-s®-Sp-°m\pw tZio-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ°p Ign-™p.2
F∂m¬ kmaq-lnI\-c-hwi-im-kv{X-tØmSv tZiob hmZnIƒ°v
i{XpXmat\m`mhw am{Xta D≠mbncp∂p≈q. ImcWw, C¥y≥
kwkvImc]mcºcyßfpsS "{]mIrX' kz`mhsØ a\x-]q¿hw
Db¿Øn-°m-Wn-°p∂ ⁄m\-imJ-bm-W-sX∂ tXm∂¬ Ah¿
°n-S-bn¬ hym]-I-am-bn-cp-∂p.
BZy-Ime C¥y≥ kaq-li
- m-kv{X-⁄c
- n¬ A{K-KW
- y-\m-bn-cp∂
Fw.-F≥.-{io-\n-hmkv Cu i{Xp-Xm-a-t\m-`m-hsØ ISpw-Nm-b-ß-fn¬
37

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

hc- ® p- I m- ´ n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . Xs‚ sNdp- ∏ - Ø n¬
""kmº- Ø nIim- k v{Xw, cmjv{So- b - h n⁄m\obw (political science), Ncn{Xw F∂nh-bn¬ \n∂v hyXykvXambn, A[n\nth
inXcmPyßfnse A`ykvXhnZycmb
\m´pIm¿°nSbn¬ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øn\v
{]nbw Xoscbn-√m-bn-cp-∂p''sh∂v At±lw
Hm¿an°p∂p. ImXdn≥ tatbm (Katherine
Mayo)
cNn® Mother India F∂ ]pkvXIw
ImXdn≥ tatbm
D≠m- ° n- h ® Zpjv t ]- c m- b n- c p∂p CXn\p
Imc-W-sa∂pw At±lw ]d-bp∂p. (1927¬
]pd- Ø n- d - ß nb Cu ]pkv X Iw C¥y
°m- c psS ssewKn- I - { `m- ¥ p- I ƒ, _me
hnhmlw, inip-l-Xy, sXm´p-Iq-Smbva XpSßnb Zpcm-Nm-c-ßsf s]mSn∏pw sXmßepw
h®v Ah- X - c n- ∏ n- ® p. ]m›m- X y- t em- I Øv
C¥ysb°pdn®p {]N- c n®n- c p∂ ]e
hm¿∏pamXr- I - I - s fbpw H∂p- I qSn Du´n
bpd-∏n-°pw-hn[w hnIrXamb Nn{Xo-I-c-W-amWv Cu ]pkvXIw
\n¿h-ln-®-sX∂v tZio-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ Btcm-]n-®p. "HmS-]-cn-tim-[
- I s‚ dnt∏m¿´v ' F∂mWv Km‘n AXns\ hnti- j n- ∏ n- ® - X v ) .
1943 BK-Ãn¬ hnP-b-hm-U-bnse CS-Ø-c-°m¿ HØp-Iq-Sn-bn-cp∂
Hcp ¢_n¬\n∂v Xm≥ B´n∏pd-Øm-°-s∏´ kw`hw {io\n-hmkv
C{]-Imcw hnh-cn-°p∂p :
[Fs∂ ]pd-Øm-°n-b-Xv] sXep¶pP\-X-bpsS al-\ob
kwkvIm-c-Øn-\p-ta¬ Hcp ImXdn≥ tatbm-Ifn \SØ-emWv Fs‚ ]cn-]m-Sn-sb∂v Icp-Xnb hm°nMv
Ãnt°-¥nb Hcp XSn-b≥ h°o-em-bn-cp∂p. PmXn,
Nm¿®-m_-‘-߃, D’-h-߃, taf-Iƒ, {hX-߃
XpS-ßn-b-h-sb-°p-dn®v Rm≥ tNmZy-߃ tNmZn-®p
-sIm-≠n-cn-°p-tºmƒ Cu h°o¬ tIm-]n-jvT-\mbn
IS-∂p-h-∂p-sIm-≠p-]-d-™p, "Cdßv ]pd-Øv, Rß
ƒ°v BNm-c-ß-tf-bn√.'
({io-\n-hmkv 1992:133)
kmº-ØnIim-kv{X-Øn\p e`n® s]mXp-kzo-I-c-W-hp-ambn
CXns\ X´n®p-t\m-°p-tºmƒ ImWp∂ A¥cw \sΩ ]eXpw
]Tn-∏n-°p-∂p. kmº-ØnIim-kv{X-⁄cpw C¥y-bpsS AXn-Z-b\ob Pohn-Xm-h-ÿ-I-sf-Ø-s∂-bmWv tcJ-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv. ]t£,
38

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

Ah-cpsS ⁄m\-imJ tZi-kvt\-l-Øm¬, A[n-\n-th-i-hn-cp-≤at\m- ` m- h - Ø m¬, t{]cnXamsW∂v ÿm]n°m≥ Ffp∏ambn
cp∂p. ImcWw, C¥y-bnse Zmcn{ZysØ apgp-h\pw {_n´ojv `c-WØns‚ ^e-ambn ImWm-\pw C¥y-bpsS kzmX-{¥ysØ km[qIcn-°p∂ Hcp hmZ-ambn AXns\ am‰m\pw hnja-ap≠m-bn-cp
-∂n-√. ]t£, C¥y-bn¬ {]Nm-c-Øn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ "BNm-c-ap-d
-Isf' CØ-cØn¬ {_n´ojv krjvSn-bmbn Isøm-gn-bm≥ Ffp-∏
-a√m-bn-cp-∂p. Cu BNm-c-ap-d-Iƒ°p-t\sc hnc¬Nq≠n-s°m≠mWv
A[n-\n-th-im-\p-Iq-en-Iƒ ]e-t∏mgpw C¥y kzmX{¥yw A¿ln°p-∂n-s√∂v hmZn-®Xv; Xß-fpsS FXn-cm-fn-I-fpsS `mj- ˛ B[p\nI-X-bpsS `mj- ˛- kwkm-cn-°m≥ {ian-®n-cp∂ tZio-b-hm-Zn-I
ƒ°v Ah \mW-t°-Sm-bn-cp∂p.
kºZvhyh-ÿ, cmjv{So-b-hy-hÿ F∂n-h-bpsS am‰-sØ-°p-dn®mtem-Nn-°p-tºmƒ AhbpsS `qXIme]mcºcysØ ]cnc£nt°≠Xns\°p-dnt®m¿Øv A[n-I-sam∂pw a\x-km£n°pØv
kln-t°≠n h∂n-cp-∂n-√, tZio-b-hm-Zn-Iƒ°v. Imc-Ww, ChbpsS
`qX-Ime-sØ tZio-b-X∑ (national identity)bpsS Ahn-`m-Py-L-SItam kz¥w \ne-bn¬ hne-s∏-´tXm Bbn Ah¿ Icp-Xn-bn-cp-∂ns√-∂-Xp-Xs∂. A[n-\n-th-i-˛-]-c-º-cm-KX kºZvhyhÿ-bn¬
\n∂pw `cWk{ºZmbØn¬\n∂pw kaqeamb am‰-amWt√m
tZiobhmZnIƒ B{Kln®Xv. ]t£, "]c-º-cm-KXkaq-l-Øns‚
Xntcm-[m\w' (The Passing of Traditional Society), ]c-º-cmKX
kwkv I m- c - Ø ns‚ ]n∑m- ‰ w XpS- ß n- b - h sb kΩn{ihnImcß
tfmsSbmWv Ah¿ I≠Xv.3 ]mc-º-cy-sa-∂Xv i‡-amb ]c-kv]chn-cp-≤-`m-h-\-Iƒ \ne-\n∂ CS-ambn-cp-∂p. HcphiØv kmaq-lnI
sF- I yw, kmwkv I m- c n- I Ø- \ na, AXphgn tZiobmht_m[w
F∂nhbpsS {]Xyb-imkv{X]c-amb Dd-h-Iƒ D¤hn®Xv ]mc
-º-cy-Ønem-bn-cp∂p. adp-h-iØv ]ptcm-K-a-\-]m-X-bn-te-°v D‰p
t\m°p∂ B[p- \ nIcmPy- Ø n\v tNcmØ \nc- h [n Ime- l - c
-W-s∏´ "kmaq-lnIXn∑-'Ifpw A\m-Nm-c-ßfpw ]nt∂m-°m-hÿbpsS Nn”-ßfpw AhnsS kpe-`-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu "kmaq-lnI
Xn∑'Isf A]- { K- Y n- ° m\pw shfn- ® - Ø p- s Im- ≠ p- h - c m- \ p- a mWv
kaq-l-imkv{Xw ]Wn-s∏-´-Xv. tZio-b-kw-kvIm-c-Øns‚ tamiw
hi-ßsf Db¿Øn-°m-´p-∂p-sh∂ Btcm-]Ww kaq-l-im-kv{XØn\v tIƒt°-≠n-h-∂p. Npcp°n∏d™m¬, a‰p kmaq-lnI
imkv { X- ⁄ m- \ - i m- J - I ƒ kzX{¥ C¥y- b n¬ hos≠- S p- ° - e ns‚bpw k¶ShntamN\Øn-s‚bpw Km\-߃ A\mbm-tk\ ]mSnb-t∏mƒ, B Kmb-I-kw-L-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sm≥ kaql-im-kv{XØn\v
Ign™n√. kμnKv[kz`mham¿∂ `qXImeØns‚ AhImin
39

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

bmbnt∏mbXpsIm≠v Cu ⁄m\-imJbv°v ASnapSn- am‰n-sb-gpØv
Bh-iy-am-bn-Øo¿∂p.
kmº-ØnIhnI-k-\sØ tI{μ-_nw-_-am-°n-s°m≠v `c-WIqS t\Xr-Xz-Øn¬ Bcw-`n® tZio-tbm-≤m-c-W-a-lm-b-⁄-Øn\p
]pd-s∏´ C¥y F∂ \h-Pm-X-cm-jv{S-am-bn-cp∂p Cu ]p\cm-tem-N\-bpsS k¿h-{]-[m-\-amb ]›m-Ø-ew. Cu tZi-˛-\n¿am-W-]-≤-XnbpsS aq¿Ø-km£m-¬Im-c-߃ A°m-Zan-I-˛-_u-≤nIcwKØv
Imcy- a mb {]Xym- L - m Xßfp≠m°nbXn¬ AXnibn°m\n√.
⁄m\imJIfpsS hy‡nXzw, ⁄m\\n¿amW]cn]mSnIƒ
F∂nh `c-W-Iq-S-Øns‚ ]tcm-£-amb ssIØm-ßn-eqsS am‰nsbgp-X-s∏´p; \ne-hn¬ {]_-e-amb {]Xy-b-im-kv{X-Im-em-hÿbpw
Cu am‰ßƒ°v ]n∂n¬ {]h¿Øn®p. 1950Ifnepw 60Ifnepw
- D ∂X- h nZym`ymk˛KthjW- t aJeIfnep≠mb Ip- X n®p- N m- ´ Øns‚ apJy- K p- W - t `m- ‡ m- ° ƒ imkv { X- ˛ - k m- t ¶- X n- I - h n- j - b
-ß-fm-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw kmaq-lnI-im-kv{X-߃°pw Nne t\´-߃
ssIh-∂p. Cu {]{In-b-bpsS A\n-hm-cy-`m-K-ambn ⁄m\imJm
AXn¿h-c-ºp-Iƒ Iptd-sbms° Bkq-{Xn-X-ambpw Iptd-tbsd
Bkq- { Xn- X - a - √ m- s Xbpw ]p\¿hn- \ y- k n- ° - s ∏- ´ - t ∏mƒ kaqlimkv{Xw {]Xn-Iq-em-h-ÿ-bn¬ AI-s∏-Sp-Ibpw sNbvXp.
Cu k¶S-ÿn-Xn°v Hcp ImcWw, kaq-l-imkv{Xw kmaq-lnI
\- c - h w- i - i m- k v { Xhp- a mbn th≠- X n- e - [ nIw sFIy- s ∏- ´ p- t ]m- b
-Xm-Wv. \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-sa-∂m¬ "{]mIrX' As√-¶n¬ ]c-º
-cm-KXkaq-l-ß-fpsS ]T-\w; kaq-l-im-kv{X-sa-∂m¬ "k¶o¿W'
As√-¶n¬ B[p-\nIkaq-l-ß-fpsS ]T\w F∂ km{º-Zm-bn-Ith¿Xn- c n- h ns\ AwKoIcn°m≥ C¥y≥ kmaqlnI\chwi
imkv{X⁄¿ s]mXpsh Iq´m°n-bn-´n-√. Cu \ne-]m-Sns\ \ymboI-cn-°p∂ hmZ-߃ [mcm-f-ap-s≠∂pw ]d-tb-≠-Xm-Wv. DZm-l-cW-Øn\v C∂v Cu ]g-©≥ th¿Xncn-hns\ KthjI¿ AwKoIcn°p∂n√; am{X-a√ Cu c≠p ⁄m\-im-J-Ifpw ]c-kv]cw
_‘-s∏´p \n¬°p-∂p, \nc-h[n hnj-b-߃ ]¶p-h-bv°p-Ibpw
sNøp-∂p. Xs∂-bp-a-√, C¥y-t]m-ep≈ cmPy-ß-fn¬ ta¬kq-Nn∏n® c≠p-Xcw kaq-l-ßfpw (B-[p-\n-Ihpw ]c-ºcmKXhpambh)
Htc Ime-Øn¬ \ne-\n¬°p-∂p-ap-≠v. Cßs\ c≠p ⁄m\
- i m- J - I ƒ kwK- a n- ° p- t ºmƒ AXn¬ \n∂p- f - h m- I p∂ ]pXnb
⁄m\-im-Jbv°v GsX-¶n-ep-samcp P\-bn-Xm-hns‚ t]cv kzoI-cn°mw. As√-¶n¬ c≠n-s‚bpw t]cp-Iƒ kzmb-Ø-am-°mw. F∂m¬
C¥y- b n¬ kmaq- l nI- \ - c - h w- i - i m- k v { X- s a∂ t]c- √ , "kaq- l imkv{X'sa∂ t]cmWv kzoIm-cy-am-b-Xv. A[n-\n-th-i -\-c-hw-iim-kv{X-hp-am-bp≈ \mWw-sI´ _‘sØ XmgvØnbn-Sm-\p≈
40

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

B{K-l-am-bn-cp-∂n-cn°mw CXn\p ]n∂n¬. AXp-t]mse Imbn-I\-c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øn\pw AXns‚ D]-im-J-Iƒ°pw (palaeontology,
anthropometry F∂nh) C¥y-bn¬ i‡-amb km∂n-[y-ap-≠m-bncp-∂p. Ah-bn¬\n∂v AIew ]men-°m\pw Cu Xe-apd B{K-ln®n-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww.
F¥ns‚ t{]c-W-sIm-≠m-bmepw icn, ]e LS-I-߃ HØptN¿∂p-≠mb "C¥y≥ kaq-l-imkv{X'sa∂ Cu ⁄m\-im-J
bv°v \c-hw-ii
- m-kv{X-tØmSv henb Nmbvhp≠v. C¥ybv°p ]pdØv
\c-hw-ii
- m-kv{X-am-bn-Øs
- ∂-bmWv AXv Adn-bs
- ∏-Sp-∂Xpw. C¥y≥
kaqlimkv{X⁄¿ C¥ybv°p]pdØpt]mIptºmƒ \chwi
imkv{X⁄cmbmWv KWn°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. Ahsc kzoI-cn-°p-∂Xv
k¿h- I - e m- i m- e - I - f nse \c- h w- i - i m- k v { X- h - I p- ∏ p- I - f m- W v . Cu
sXmgn¬cwKØv {]K-¤-cmbn AwKo-I-cn-°-s∏-´- C¥y-°m-cpw
]m›m-Xycpw A[n-Ihpw \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øn¬ ]cn-io-e\w t\Snb-h-cmWv. PmXn, Nm¿®m_‘-߃, aXw, {Kmao-W-k-aq-l-߃,
tKm{X-߃ F∂n-h-bv°mWv Kth-j-W-Øn¬ IqSp-X¬ {]m[m\yw
e`n-®n-´p-≈-Xv. h¿K-L-S-\, \K-c-߃, hn]-Wn-Iƒ, hymh-km-bn-I_-‘-߃, am[y-a-߃ apX-em-b-hbv°v Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd™
{]m[m-\yta Iev]n-®n-´p≈q. ]T-\-co-Xn-I-fpsS Imcy-Ønepw \c
-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿°p{]nb-s∏´ ]¶m-fn \nco-£Ww (participant
observation), hy‡n-I-fn¬ \n∂v hnhcw tiJ-cn-®p-sIm≠p≈
Kth-j-W-cw-K-]-T-\w apX-em-b-h-bv°mWv {]map-Jyw. k¿th-I-fneq-sS-bp≈ Kth-j-Ww, ÿnXn-hn-h-c-°-W-°p-I-fpsS hni-I-e\w
apX-em-b-hbv°p kzm[o\w s]mXpth IpdhmWv.4
]t£, C¥y-≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ B¥-cn-I-L-S\ as‰mcp
hn[-Øn-em-bn-cp-s∂-¶nepw AXns‚ ]mX hyXy-kvX-am-In-√m-bn
- c p- ∂ p. kzmX- { ¥ym- \ - ¥ - c - L - ´ - Ø n- e p- b ¿∂p- h ∂ ]pXp- ] - c n- K - W
- \ Iƒ A°m- Z - a nItemIsØ ]p\x- k w- L - S n- ∏ n- ° pI am{X- a √
sNbvXXv; ⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ XΩn-ep≈ D®-\o-N-Xz-_-‘-ßsf
am‰nsb-gp-Xp-Ibpw sNbvXp. BtKm-fX-e-Ønepw 20-˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚
c≠mw]IpXn "kºZvimkv{XbpK'ambncp∂psh∂ hkvXp-Xsb
I≠n-s√∂p\Sn-°m≥ Ign-bn-√-t√m. a‰p kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-im-JIƒ°v kz¥w `qX-Im-e-ßsf thK-aßp XqØp-I-f-bmt\m kz¥w
]p\x-krjvSn kzb-aßp \n¿h-ln-°mt\m Ign-bn-√m-bn-cp∂p. ]d™ph-cp∂ Imcyw CXmWv : ⁄m\-im-J-I-fpsS "`mKy'a√ ChnsS
{]iv \ w- . - k - a q- l - i mkv { Xw kº- Z v i m- k v { X- s Ø- t ∏mse F¥p
-sIm≠v BIp-∂n√ F∂ tNmZy-a√ Rm\n-hnsS tNmZn-°p-∂-Xv.
kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-߃°v samØ-Øn¬ In´nb CS-Øn¬ sNdnsbmcp]¶pam{Xta kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\v e`n-°p-am-bn-cp-∂p≈q
41

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

F∂ hkv X p- X AwKo- I - c n- ® p- s Im- ≠ p- X s∂ Rm≥ ]d- b p∂p,
C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ \c-hw-i-im-kv{Xm-`n-ap-Jyw-aqew B
sNdnb CS-sØ-t∏mepw ]q¿W-ambpw kzmb-Ø-am-°m≥ AXn\p
Ign™n-√. 5 C¥y≥ tZi-\n¿amW]≤-Xn-°p-≈n¬ {]m[m-\yw
-e-`n® kaql]T\hnjbßsf kw_‘n-®n-S-tØmfw Cu k¶-c⁄m-\imJ Zp¿_-e-am-bn-cp-∂p. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ kz¥w \ne
Dd-∏n-°m≥ {XmWn-bp-≠m-bn-cp∂ Ab¬°m¿ \SØnb Itø-‰ßsf kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\p kln-t°-≠n-h-∂p. F∂m¬, Cu
⁄m\- i m- J - b p- t S- s X∂v ]cs° AwKo- I - c n- ° - s ∏´ (\- c - h w- i
-im-kv{X) hnj-b-ß-fm-Is´, ]pXnb cmjv{S-Øns‚ {]Xy-b-imkv{X
Nmbv h pIƒt°m AXns‚ AwKo- I - c n- ° - s ∏´ {]mtbm- K n- I m- h
-iy-߃t°m A\p-kr-X-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.
DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, D]-tbm-Kn®p]tbm-Kn®p ]gIn°gn™ B
hnti-j-Ww -X-s∂-sb-Sp-°pI : "kmaq-lnI-˛-km-º-ØnI (socioeconomic)' ˛ Cu hntijWØn≥Iogn¬ AWn\ncØmhp∂
hnj-b-ß-fpsS AXn-hn-im-e-X-sb-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-°p-I. CSp-ßnb
coXn-im-kv{Xm-Sn-Ø-dbpw "hnim-e-Xe' (macro) A]-{K-Y-\-ß-tfmSp≈ sshap-Jy-hpw -aqew kaql-imkv{Xw th≠-Xn-e-[nIw CSw
kº-Zvim-kv{X-Øn\p hn´p-sImSp-Øp-sh∂p hy‡-am-Wv. kmº-ØnI-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS kmaq-lnI-˛-kmw-kvImcn-I-h-i-ßsf IqSp-X¬
Bg-Øn¬ hn-i-I-e-\w- sN-ø-Wsa∂ Bhiyw kaq-l-im-kv{XØn¬\n-∂-√, kmº-Øn-I-im-kv{X-Øn¬ \n-∂mWv Db¿∂-sX∂
hkvXp-Xbpw {it≤-bw -X-s∂. apJy-ambpw kº-Zvim-kv{X-hn-j-bambn IW-°m-°-s∏-Sp∂ hnj-b-ß-sf-°p-dn®v ˛ DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v
Zmcn{ZysØ°p-dn®v ˛ hnkvXr-X-amb A°mZ-anI˛A¿[ A°m-ZanI ]T-\-km-lnXyw e`y-am-bn-cn-°p-∂Xv F¥p-sIm-s≠∂p a\n-em-°m≥ hnj-a-an-√. ]t£, Cu apJy-[mcbn¬ \n∂v kaq-limkv{Xw C{X Imcy-amb AIew ]men-®-sX-¥p-sIms≠-∂Xv
a\- n-em-Ip-∂n-√.6 kaq-l-aq-e-[\w (social capital), enwK-]-c-amb
Ak-a-Xz-߃ (gendered inequalities), PmXn-k-ap-Zm-b-irw-J-e-Iƒ
apX- e m- b - h bv ° v Zmcn{Zyw t]mep≈ {]Xn- ` m- k - ß - f p- a m- b p≈
_‘w, Zmcn-{Zy-tØmSv a\p-jy¿ {]Xn-I-cn-°p∂ coXn-Isf Ch
kzm[o-\n-°p-∂ -hn-[w- ˛- C-Øcw {]ta-b-ß-fpsS {]m[m-\ysØ
ASn-h-c-bn´pImWn-°m-\p≈ Ah-kcw kº-Zvim-kv{X-⁄¿°pw
cmjv{So-b-hn-⁄m\ob ]fin-X-∑m¿°pw (UNDP, temI-_m¶v
XpS-ßnb kwL-S-\-Iƒ°pw) hoWp-In-´n-bXv shdp-sX-b-√. 1950
Ifnse Iayq-Wn‰n sUh-e-]vsa‚ v t{]m{Kmw apX¬ 1990Ifnse
afi¬ hn-hmZw hsc-bp≈ \mep-Z-iIØn\n-Sbn¬ ChnsS cq]sa-SpØ {]apJ tZio-b-b-Xv\-ß-fn-sem∂nepw Xs∂ kaq-l
42

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

-im-kv{X-⁄¿ CSw ]nSn-°m-Ø-Xns‚ ImcWw Cu kmaq-lnI
-im-kv{X-⁄m-\-im-J-bpsS "\n¿`mKyw' am{X-am-Im-\n-S-bn-√.
C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ hnj-a-k-‘n-bpsS aq∂m-asØ
{]tXy-I-Xbpw \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-hp-am-bp≈ AXns‚ kwK-a-Øn¬
\n∂p-S-se-Sp-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- ˛- Aev]w hyXy-kvX-amb coXn-bn-em-WXv
{]I-S-am-Ip-∂-sX∂v am{Xw. Cu k¶-c-km-aq-lnI-im-kv{X-im-Jbv°v
th≠{X "C¥y≥ kØ-'bpt≠m F∂ Bi¶ XpS-sc-Øp-Ssc
{]ISn-∏n-°-s∏-Sp-∂-XmWv aq∂m-asØ {]tXy-I-X. aXn-bmb Afhn¬ C¥y≥ kz`mhw AXn-\pt≠m? AXns\ IqSp-X¬ C¥y\m°n am‰m≥ Ign-bptam? Aßs\ sNtø-≠Xv AXym-h-iytam?
"Bi¶' F∂ ]Zw A\ev]hpw hnNn-{Xhp-amb A[n-I-Ø-ambncn°mw; ]t£ ]m›m-tXy-Xckml-N-cy-ß-fn¬ kmaq-lnIim-kv{X߃ F√m-bvt]mgpw DW¿Øp∂ Aev]Øne[nIamb A¶-em∏ns\-°p-dn®v kqNn-∏n°m≥ AXp klm-bn-°pw. {]Ir-Xn-im-kv{X
-ß-fpsS Ncn-{X-]-chpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-hp-amb \ne Ah-bpsS D≈S-°-sØtbm kz`m-h-sØtbm _m[n-°n-s√∂ hnizmkw (ASpØIm- e Øv Nne kwi- b - ß ƒ D∂- b n- ° - s ∏- ´ n- ´ p- s ≠- ¶ n- e pw) Cu
imkv{X-ß-fpsS apJap-{Z-bm-Wv. C°m-cy-Øn¬ s]mXpsh kmaqlnI-im-kv{X-߃°v Bflhnizmkw Ipd-™m-Wn-cn-°p-∂-Xv.
F¶nepw Hmtcm kmaq-lnIim-kv{Xhpw Hmtcm coXn-bn-emWv Cu
{]iv\-tØmSp {]Xn-I-cn-®n-´p-≈-Xv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, kmwkvIm-cnI/
Ncn-{X-]-c-amb khn-ti-j-X-I-fpsS `mcw kº-Zvim-kv{Xw, Ncn{Xw
F∂o ⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd-®p -am-{Xta hln-°p∂p-≈q; ]e Imc-W-ß-fm¬. F∂m¬ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øns‚
`qX-Imew IW-°n-se-Sp-°p-tºmƒ Cu Bi-¶bpsS `mcw AXnt∑¬ A[n-I-am-b-sX-¥p-sIm-≠m-sW∂v hy‡-am-Ipw. Cu ⁄m\im-Jsb kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw kmwkvImcnI{]tXy-I-X, A[n\n-th-im-[n-Im-cw, hwiob ta¬t°mbva apX-emb {]iv\-߃
tIhew _mly-]›mØe-am-bn-cp-∂n-√-.- adn®v Cu ⁄m\-im-JbpsS ssk≤m-¥n-I-amb DuSpw coXn-im-kv{X-]-c-amb ]mhpw Xs∂bm- b n- c p∂p. ]m›mXyA[n- \ n- t h- i - k m- l - N - c y- ß ƒ kz¥w
ImgvNsb hnIr-X-am-°n-sb∂v Xpd-∂w-Ko-I-cn-®-Xp-sIm≠v C¥y≥
A°m-Z-anItemIw Ncn-{Xw, cmjv{Sob-k-º-Zvimkv{Xw (political
economics) apX-emb ⁄m\-im-J-Isf Isøm-gn-™n√. Ipfn-∏n®
sh≈-Øns‚sbm∏w Ip´n-sb-°qSn Fdn-™p-I-f-tb-≠-Xn-s√∂v
Cu ⁄m\-im-J-I-fpsS {]tbm-‡m-°ƒ I≠-dn-™p- ˛ tZiob
hmZNcn{XcN\mcoXnIfpw hnI-k-\k-º-Zvim-kv{Xhpw (development economics) Ipfn-∏n® sh≈w am{Xw If™v Ip´nsb kwc£n- ° m\p≈ hgn- I - f mbn IW- ° m- ° - s ∏- ´ p. ]t£, \c- h w- i 43

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

im-kv{X-Øn¬ Imcy-߃ hyXy-kvX-am-bn-cp-∂p. ]®bv°p]d™m¬, CXm-bn-cp∂p {]iv\w : sh≈-°mc-√mØ P\-ßsf ]Tn°m≥ sh≈-°m¿ \n¿an® Hcp ⁄m\-im-J-sb-s°m≠v Xhn-´psXm-en-°m¿ F¥psNøWw? Xocpam\-sa-Sp-°m≥ Ffp-∏-ap≈
{]iv\-a-√m-bn-cp∂p CXv.
Cu {]iv \ - t ØmSv ]e- h n- [ - Ø n- e p≈ {]Xn- I - c - W - ß fmWv
D≠mbXv. Hc-‰Øv A[n-\n-th-ihpw \c-hw-i-im-kv{Xhpw XΩn¬
_‘-sam-∂p-an-s√-∂hIm-i-s∏-´p-sIm≠v A[n-\n-th-im-\-¥-c-L-´Ønepw ]Xnhp coXn-{]-Imcw AXn\p XpS-cm-sa∂p Icp-Xn-b-h-cpw
at‰b‰Øv \c-hwi-im-kv{XsØ ]uc-kvXy-hm-Z-im-kv{X-ambn
FÆn-b-hcpw \ne-bp-d-∏n®p. ]uc-kvXy-hm-Z-—mb Ie¿∂ Cu
⁄m\-im-Jbv°v kzX{¥ C¥y-bn¬ bmsXmcp {]k-‡n-bp-ans√∂v c≠m-asØ Iq´¿ {]Jym-]n-®p- ˛- ]-g-sbmcp s^an-\nÃv ^enXhmIysØ Aev ] - s am∂p t`Z- s ∏- S p- Ø n- ∏ - d - ™ m¬ ao\n\v
ssk°nƒ Bh-iy-an-√, C¥ybv°v \c-hw-i-imkv{Xhpw th≠!
F∂m¬ Cu c≠v A-Xn-cp-Iƒ°p-an-S-bn¬ Npcp-f-gn™ bYm¿∞
{]Xn-I-c-W-ßsf efn-X-ambn hnh-cn-°m-s\-fp-∏-a√; F¥m-bmepw
Cu c≠v Xo{h- \ n- e - ] m- S p- I ƒ°p- a n- S - b n- e p≈ "kph¿W a[y
am¿K'a√ Ah krjvSn-®-sX∂pam{Xw ]d-bmw. Ch-bn-se√mw Cu
⁄m\- i m- J - b psS C¥y≥ kz`m- h sØ- ° p- d n- ® p≈ i¶- b psS
ASnsbm-gp°v s]mXpsh ImWm-\p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. "C¥y≥ \c-hw-iimkv{Xw' F∂ BibwXs∂ Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS Ncn{X
thcpItfmSv tNcmsX \n¬°p- ∂ p- s h∂ tXm∂- e n¬\n∂p
]nd∂ DXvI-WvT-bm-bn-cp∂p CXv.
\c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\-\n-b-a-ß-fn-sem∂v CXmWv:
Xt‚X-√mØ kwkvImcw thWw \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿ ]Tn°m≥. tIƒ°p-tºmƒ \njv]-£hpw Aaq¿Ø-hp-am-sW-¶nepw
{]tbm-K-Øn¬ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øns‚ LS\ Ak¥p-en-X-am-Wv.
AXm- b Xv \c- h wi- i m- k v { X- K - t h- j - W - Ø n¬ A[n- I ]- £ hpw
]m›m-Xy¿ Kth-j-Icpw ]m›m-tXy-X-c¿ Kth-jWhkvXp-hpam-bn -ImW-s∏-Sp-∂p. ^e-tam, \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿ s]mXpsh
]m›mXy-cm-sW∂pw Ah¿ ]Tn-°p∂ kwkvIm-c-߃ ]m›m-Xykw-kvIm-c-Øns‚ "A]c'ÿm\-Øp≈ (other)hcm-sW-∂p-ap≈
[mc-W-Iƒ Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS kmam-\y-_p-≤n-bn¬ h√msX
ASn-™p-In-S-°p-∂p. Cu ]›m-Ø-e-Øn¬ ]m›m-tXy-X-c-th-cpI-fp≈ \chw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿ hnNn-{XPo-hn-I-fm-bn, G®p-sI-´p-Ifm-bn, apg-®p-\n∂p. hntijn®pw kz¥w kwkvIm-csØ \c-hw-iim-kv{X-⁄¿ ]Tn-®p-IqSm F∂m-Wt√m {]amWw! Xß-fpsS
]m›mXy{]Xn]pcpj∑m- c n¬\n∂p hyXy- k v X ambn kz¥w
44

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

kwkvIm-cß-sf°pdn®p≈ At\z-jWßfn¬ apgp-In-b-h-cm-bncp∂p C¥y≥ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿ (C-sX-ßs\ kw`-hn-®p-sh∂
tNmZy-Øn-s‚ D-Øcw Hcp]t£ kphy-‡-am-sW∂p tXm∂ntb-°mw, ]t£ bYm¿∞-Øn¬ IqSp-X-e-t\z-j-W-am-h-iys∏-Sp∂
{]iv\-am-Wn-Xv). Ah¿°v ]m›m-Xy-kw-kvIm-c-ß-sftbm Xß
-fp-tS-X-√mØ ]m›m-tXy-X-c-kw-kvIm-c-ß-sftbm ]Tn-°m≥ Ign™n-´n-√. \S∂ Nne {ia-߃ ⁄m-\-im-J-bpsS apJy-[m-csb
A[n-I-sam∂pw _m[n-®n-´p-an-√. F∂m¬ kao-]-ImeØv Nne
apg-°-߃ IptdbIse \n∂p tI´p-Xp-S-ßn-bn-cn°p∂p.
Aß-s\ -t\m-°p-tºmƒ, ta¬hn-h-cn®, Ipg-™p-a-dn-™p-In-S°p∂ Ncn-{X-tØmSv Bfl-t_m-[-iq-\yhpw ]e-t∏mgpw Ie-ßn°q-Sn-b-Xp-amb Hcp {]Xn-I-c-W-am-bn-cp∂p Cu C¥y≥ kz`m-h-sØ°p-dn-®p≈ DXvIWvT F∂p ImWmw. ]e-t∏mgpw hnNn-{X-Po-hnI-fmbn IW-°m°-s∏-s´-¶nepw Xß-fpsS Bi-b-߃°v A¿ln°p∂ Kuch-tØm-sS-bp≈ kzoI-cWw B{K-ln® BZy-Ime
C¥y≥ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄-cpsS D≈nepw XßfpsS tZio-bkmw-kvIm-cnIX∑bpw sXmgn¬]camb X∑bpw XΩnep≈ \n»_vZ
kwL¿jw Akz-ÿXbpW¿Ønbncp∂ncn°-Ww. CXv 1950Ifnse
A[n- \ n- t h- i m\- ¥ - c - L ´- Ø n¬ aq¿Ø- a mb bmYm¿∞y- a m- b n
-cp-∂n-cn-°-Ww. ]t£, ⁄m\-im-Jm-\n-b-a-ßfpw {]tbm-K-ßfpw
hf-sc-b-[nIw amdn-sb∂ tXm∂¬ i‡-amb C∂-sØ-°m-eØv
ÿnXn-K-Xn-Iƒ thsd-bmWv. C∂v C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-˛-\-chwiimkv { X- Ø n¬ kz¥w {]hrØn- s b- ° p- d n- s ®- s ¥- ¶ nepw
kwibw _m°n-\n¬°p-∂p-s≠-¶n¬ AXv kz¥w kaq-lsØ
]Tn-t°-≠n-h-cp-∂ Ah-ÿ-bn¬\n∂v Df-hm-Ip-∂-X-√. F¥n-\v,
sNcn-∏n-t∏mƒ adp-Im-en-em-sW∂pXs∂ ]dbmw. Cu ⁄m\
-im-J-bpsS `qX-Im-e-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ Ah-t_m[w h¿[n-®-tXmsS
]m›m-Xy]mfinXy-Øn\v C¥y-bp-sS-ta-ep≈ t_m[-]q¿htam
A√mØtXm Bb {]Xym-Lm-X-ß-sf-∏-‰n-bp≈ Xncn-®dnhpw IqSpX¬ i‡- a m- b n- ´ p- ≠ v . A[n- \ n- t hiwhgn ]S¿∂ Aip- ≤ n- s b
-°p-dn-®p≈ `oXn°p ]pdta, s]mXp-sh, A\y-kn-≤m-¥-߃t°m
ssk≤m-¥n-I¿t°m C¥y≥kwkvImcw, kaqlw F∂n-hsb
Xr]vXn-I-c-ambn h¿Wn-°mt\m hni-Zo-I-cn-°mt\m Ign-bn-s√∂
`bw IqSp- X ¬ kmam\y- h ¬I- c n- ° - s ∏´ coXn- b n¬ \ne- h n¬
h∂n-´p-≠v. Ahy-‡-ambnam{Xw \n¿h-Nn-°-s∏´, F∂m¬ G‰hpw
cq£- a m- b n- Ø s∂ A\p- ` - h - s ∏- S p∂ CØcw Bi¶- I - f mWv
bYm¿∞-Øn¬ X≥\m-´n¬Øs∂ thcp-I-fp≈ kaql-im-kv{XØn- \ p- t h≠n XpS- s c- Ø p- S - s c- b p- ≠ m- b n- s °m- ≠ n- c n- ° p∂ apdhn-fn°p]n∂n¬.
45

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

Cu {]Xn`mk-hp-ambn _‘s∏´p\n¬°p∂ sshcp[yßfpw
sshNn-{Xy-ßfpw \nc-h-[n-bm-Wv. DZm-l-c-W-Øn-\v, X\Xpthcp-Ifp≈ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn-\p-th≠n ÿnc-ambn hmZn-°p-∂-h¿ ]et∏mgpw A\y-\m-´p-Im-cmb ]fin-Xc
- m-Wv. tZio-bh
- m-Zn-If
- n¬ ]eXc°m¿ {]tbm-P-\-s∏-Sp-Ønb _u≤n-I-sh-Sn-a-cp-∂ns‚ hen-sbmcp
]¶v- ˛- hn-ti-jn®pw C¥y≥ \mK-cn-I-X, kwkvImcw F∂n-h-bpsS
al-\o-b-X-Isf hmgvØp∂ Ncn-{X-]-chpw C≥tUm-f-Pn-bn¬ thcpI-fp-≈-Xp-amb cN-\-Iƒ -˛ -]m-›m-Xy-]-fin-XcpsS kΩm-\-am-bncp∂p F∂-Xn¬ Ncn-{X-]-c-amb hncp-t≤m‡n {]h¿Øn-°p-∂p-≠v.
F√m-Øn-\p-ap-]-cn-bm-bn, C¥y≥ kaq-l-sØ-°p-dn-®p-≈, XnI®pw
"C¥y≥ kaq-l-Øn¬ thcp-I-fp≈ kaq-l-imkv{Xw' F∂ Bib-Øn\v sshIm-cnI kzoImcy-X-bp-≠mhmw; AXv \ΩpsS klPmh-t_m-[-Øn-\n-W-ßn-b-Xp-am-bn-cn-°mw. ]t£, CØ-c-samcp
kaq-l-im-kv{XsØ krjvSn-s®-Sp-°m≥ ˛ F¥n-\-[n-Iw \n¿h-Nn°m≥ ˛ Ffp-∏-a-s√∂v kΩ-Xn-t°-≠n-hcpw. "X\Xn'\v Du∂¬
\¬Ip∂ \ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ A[n-Ihpw a\- n-em-°m≥ _p≤n-ap-´p-≈h-b-√. ]t£ _u≤n-I-s°-´p-d-∏ns‚ A`mh-Øn¬ Ah KrlmXpcXz-Øn-tebv°v Npcp-ßn-t∏m-Im-dp-≠v. ⁄m\-imJ-Iƒ tZiob˛
-{]m-tZ-in-I-X-e-ß-fn¬ Fhn-sS-sbms° IpSnbncpØs∏´psh∂
tNmZyw D∂-bn-°m≥ hfsc Dd-∏p≈ Imc-W-߃ thsd-bp-s≠-∂Xn¬ X¿°-an-√. "kaql-imkv{Xw', "\c-hw-i-imkv{Xw' Fs∂ms°
\mw ]d-bp-tºmƒ Cu k¿h\m-a-߃ km¿-h-{Xn-I-kØ-I-sf-bmWv
Ipdn-°p-∂-sX-∂pw Ah tZi-˛-hw-i-˛-h¿K˛]-cn-K-W-\-Iƒ°p-]-cnbmbn a\p-jy¿°p-ap-gp-h≥ _m[-I-am-sW∂pw \mw Icp-Xm-dp-≠v.
CXp {][m- \ - ImcywXs∂; Aaq¿Ø- X - e - Ø n¬ icnbpamWv .
Cu hnizm-ksØ \mw \nc-¥cw \ho-I-cn-°p-Ibpw thWw. ]t£,
IqSp-X¬ aq¿Ø-amb A\p-`-h-X-e-Øn¬ Cu Aaq¿Ø-amb km¿h{Xn-IX kXy-sØ-°m-tfsd anYy-bm-sW∂p \ap-°-dn-bmw. B[p\nI A°m-Z-anI-⁄m-\-im-J-Iƒ Xß-fpsS \nc-¶p-i-Xz-sØ-∏‰n
X≠p ]-dbm-dp-≠v- ;- {]-tXy-In-s®mcp kztZ-i-an-s√∂pw F∂m¬
F√m-bn-Shpw Hcp-t]mse kztZ-i-am-sW-∂p-w.- ]t£, kXy-Øn¬
am‰-an-√mØ ta¬hn-em-k-am-Wh-bv°p-≈-Xv. F√m ÿeß-tfmSpw
F√m-Øcw a\p-jy-tcmSpw Hcp-t]mse _‘-s∏-Sm≥ Ahbv°p
Ign-™n-´n√, Xncn®pw A{]-Imcw Xs∂.
hyXy-kvX-X-I-fpsS am{X-a-√, Ak-a-Xz-ß-fpsS {]iv\hpw IqSnbmWnXv. temI-Øns‚ a‰p-h-i-ß-fn-se-∂-t]mse A°mZanI
cw-KØpw {]thiw, kzm[o\w F∂nh-bn¬ h≥ Ak-am-\-X-Iƒ
\ne-\n¬°p-∂p-≠v. ⁄m\-\n¿am-W-cw-KØv as‰√m P\-ß-sfbp-a-t]-£n®v ]m›mXy¿°mWv ta¬ss° F∂Xv A°m-Z-an-I
46

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

-cw-KsØ tNmZyw-sN-ø-s∏-Sm-Ø, F√m-hcpw \n»_vZw AwKo-I-cn®p-sIm-Sp-°p∂ ASn-ÿm-\-[m-c-W-I-fn-sem-∂-s{X. ]m›m-tXyXccmPy-ß-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ tcJ-Ifpw ]T-\-km-a-{Kn-Ifpw a‰pw B
cmPy-ß-fn-e-√, ]m›m-Xy-hmb\imeIfnemWv IqSp-X¬ kpe-`w.
Kth-j-W-]-T-\-߃°m-h-iy-amb `uXn-I-hn-`-h-ßfpw ]m›m-Xy
¿°mWv IqSp-X¬; Zriy-Xbpw Ah¿°m-W-[n-Iw. Nne ⁄m\
i
- m-JI
- f
- n-se-¶nepw CXn\v A]-hm-Za
- m-Im≥ C¥y°p Ign-™n-´p≠v;
Imcy-߃ AXn-thKw amdp-∂p-ap-≠v. F¶nepw BtKm-f-h¬I
-cWw CØcw Ak-am-\-X-Isf Ipd-®-Xmbn ImWp-∂n√. Ahbv°p
ÿm\-N-e\w hcp-Øm\pw Ahsb IqSp-X¬ k¶o¿Wam-°m\pw
AXn-S-bm-°n-bn-´p-≠v. AtXk-abw CØcw k¶o¿W- A-k-a-Xz߃°v BtKm-f-kz-`mhw am{X-a√ D≈-Xv -˛- cm-Py-Øn-\-IØpw
Ah -ÿm-]-\-߃, _‘-߃, {]{In-b-Iƒ F∂n-h-bn¬ A¥¿
eo-\-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p.
CXn-s‚-sb√mw samØ-Øn-ep≈ ^ew F¥mWv? A°m-Z-an-I⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ- ˛- \-c-hw-i-im-kv{Xw, kaq-l-imkv{Xw F∂nh
hnti-jn®pw- ˛- A-h-Im-i-s∏-Sp∂ km¿h-{Xn-I-Xsb AXn-e-fn-Xambn AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ \ap-°n\n Ign-bn-s√∂pXs∂. "kaq-limkv{X'sa∂v ˛- C-¥y≥ kaq-l-imkv{Xsa∂pt]mepw ˛ {]tXyI
hnti-jWw IqSmsX Ffp-∏-Øn-eßp]d-bm≥ C\n km[y-a-√.
DØcw Is≠-Øm≥ hnjaap≈ ]e tNmZy-߃ _m°n-bp-ap≠v:
"C¥y≥ kaq-l-imkv{X'sa∂m¬ tIhew C¥y-bpsS kaq-limkv{Xsa∂mtWm A¿∞w? B¿°v, F¥n\pth≠n-bm-WXv?
Bcm-WXv {]tbm-Kn-°p-∂Xv, AXns‚ {]k-‡n-sb¥v? AXn¬
D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp∂ kn≤m-¥-߃, coXn-imkv{X߃, Ch FhnSp∂phcp∂p? F√m Np‰p-]m-Sp-I-fnepw Hcp-t]mse {]k-‡-ß-fs√-¶nepw Cu tNmZy-߃ \n m-c-ß-f√; sX‰mb -tZiob]£]m-Xn-Xz-Øn¬\n∂p-≠m-Ip-∂h
- b
- p-a√
- . A[n-Im-cL
- S- \
- I
- fpw ⁄m\\n¿am-W-ÿm-]-\-ßfpw kwtbm-Pn-®p-≠m-Ip∂ hyh-ÿm]n-Xi-‡n-sb-°p-dn®v ASp-Ø-Im-eØp\S∂ At\zjW-ß-fpsS ^eambn kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-߃ kzbw a\- n-em-°p∂ coXn- Xs∂
amdn-t∏m-bn-cn-°p-∂p. Cu am‰-Øn¬\n∂p-f-hmb tNmZy-ß-fm-Wnh.
"C¥y≥ kaq-l-imkv{Xw' F∂m¬ ]c-kv]cw apdn-®p-I-S-∂pt]mIp∂ A£-ß-fn¬ cq]-s∏-Sp-∂, Ak-a-Xz-ßfpw Ak-am-\-XIfpw \ne-\n¬°p-∂, sshPm-Xy-ta-dnb cwK-am-sW∂ Xncn-®-dnhv
c≠p-hn[Øn-ep≈ Pm{K-X-bmWv Bh-iy-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. ssk≤m-¥nI-cpsS t{]c-I-i‡n, kn≤m-¥-Øns‚ D≈-S°w, k¶-ev]-Øns‚
{]tbm-K-Po-hn-Xw- ˛ Cu aq∂p-Im-cy-ß-sfbpw \n¿W-bn-°p-∂-Xv,
temIwapgp-h≥ hym]n-®p-In-S-°p-∂-Xpw Ak-a-Xz-am¿∂ A[n-Im-c47

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

_-‘ß-fm¬ \n¿an-°-s∏-´-Xp-amb ⁄m\\n¿am-W-irw-J-e-bmWv.
]t£, Cu irwJ-e-bn¬ F¥p\nebmWp≈Xv F∂-Xns\ B{ibn-®mWv Ah-bpsS hnP-b-]-cm-P-b-߃. F∂m¬ \ne-Ifpw D≈S-°hpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w kZm Dd-®n-cn-°mdn-√. F√m \ne-Iƒ°pw
Ah-bp-tS-Xmb km[y-X-Ifpw ]cn-an-Xn-I-fp-ap-≠v. ]t£, Ah
kzbwt{]cn-X-amb coXn-bn¬ Npcp-f-gn-bm-dn-√. AXpsIm≠v Hmtcm
Ah-ÿ-bnepw Ah {]h¿Øn-°p-∂-sX-ß-s\-sb∂v Bg-Øn¬
]Tn-t°-≠-Xp-≠v. Ah-km-\-hn-i-I-e-\Øn¬, {]Xn-jvTm-]-\-Øns‚
(location) {]Xym-Lm-X-߃ {]Xy-£-Øn¬ shfn-s∏-Sp-Øn-°m-Wn°m-\mWv {ian-t°-≠Xv; A√msX sXfn-hn-√msX Ah Npcp-f-gn™Xmbn AwKo-I-cn-°p-I-b√.
"\n߃ Chn-sS-bmWv : Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn-eqsS IS-∂p-t]m-Ip-∂h¿°p≈ `q]Sw'
Cu Bap- J m- [ ym- b - Ø ns‚ Ah- k m- \ - ` m- K Øv , XpS¿∂p≈
A[ymb-ß-fn¬ C¥y≥ kaq-lw, kaq-l-imkv{Xw F∂n-h-bn-eqsS
k©-cn-°m≥ \mw kzoI-cn-°p∂ hgn hc-®p-Im-´m\mWv Rm≥ {ian°p-∂Xv. ]t£ AXn\papºm-bn, Cu ]pkvXIw Db¿Øn-∏nSn-°p∂ Bfl-{]-Xn-^e
- \
- a
- q-ey-߃°v (self-reflexivity) A\p-tbmPyamb coXn-bn¬ CsX-gp-Xp∂ Bƒ GXp-Xcw ]cn-k-c-ß-fn¬
\n∂mWv Bcw-`n-°p-∂-sX∂v ]dtb-≠-Xp-≠v.
CØcw hnj-bß
- ƒ ssIImcyw sNøp∂ a‰p ]e cN-\I
- sfbpw
t]mse, \nc-h[n hyXy-kvX-L-S-I-߃ tN¿∂mWv Cu ]pkvXIhpw D≠m-b-Xv. teJ-Is‚ XmXv]-cy-߃, Ign-hp-Iƒ, Abmƒ°v
a‰p ]e-Xn-s\bpw Ipdn-®p≈ Adn-hn-√m-bva-Iƒ, Ch-sb√mw \n¿
Wm-b-I kzm-[o\w sNep-Øn-bn-´p-≠v. CXp-Iq-SmsX ⁄m\-im-Jbv°p-≈n¬ Nne hnj-b-߃°v a‰p-≈-h-sb-b-t]-£n®v {]m[m-\yta-dm≥ CS-h-cp-Øp∂ {]h-W-X-Iƒ; {]km-[-I¿°v hn]Wnkm[yX-I-sf-°p-dn-®p≈ [mc-W-Iƒ; Hgn-hm-°m-\m-hm-Ø, Bcp-sSbpw
Ip‰-a-√mØ bmZr-—n-I-X-Iƒ Cßs\ ]eXpw C-Xn¬ {]h¿Øn®n-´p-≠v. km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn¬ a‰p-Im-cy-߃ Xpey-sa∂p k¶-ev]n®m¬, Xß-fpsS Dt±-iy߃, ]≤-Xn-Iƒ apX-em-b-hbv°v IW°n-e-[nIw {]m[m\yw {KŸ-I¿Øm°ƒ \¬Im-dp-≠v. hfsc
\o≠Xpw {]bm-k-ta-dn-b-Xp-amb bm{Xbvs°mSp-hn¬ \mw ap≥
Iq-´n- Xo-cp-am-\n® ÿeØp Xs∂ FØn-t®¿∂p-sh∂v Biz-kn°m-\mWv \ap°v Xm¬]-cyw. CXp an°-hmdpw A¿[k-Xy-am-Im\m-Wn-S. F¶nepw Cu ]mXn-kz-`m-hsØ A[n-I-sam∂pw Db¿Øn°m-´m≥ \mw {ian-°m-dn-√. AXv a\- n-em-°m≥ _p≤n-ap-´p≈
{]hW-X-b-√. Hc-f-hp-hsc CXv A\n-hm-cy-hp-am-Ipw. ImcWw,
48

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

BXy-¥n-I-ambn t\m°p-tºmƒ, Fgp-Xp-∂-h-cpsS tPmen hyh-ÿbn-√m-bva-bpsSta¬ hyhÿ Btcm-]n-°¬ am{X-a-√, hmb-\
-°m-cpsS Nn¥sb D±o-]n-∏n-°¬IqSn-bmWv. hmb-\-°msc Nn¥n°m≥ t{]cn-∏n-°-emWv Fgp-Øns‚ DØ-a-e£yw.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ apJym-I¿j-W-߃°v IqSp-X¬ ]ckyw
\¬Ip∂ Hcp ]pkvX-I-sa-gp-Xp-I- ˛- A-Xm-bn-cp∂p Fs‚ e£yw.
kaql-imkv{Xw temIsØ kao-]n-°p∂ coXn, AXp-f-hm-°p∂
{]tXyI Dƒ°m-gvN-Iƒ, Ch-sb-°p-dn-®p≈ Adn-hns\ hym]-I
-am-°m-\mWv Rm≥ {ian-®n-´p-≈-Xv. AXpsIm≠v kaq-l-im-kv{XØn¬ ]cn-io-e\w t\Sn-b-h-sc-b√ Cu ]pkvXIw D∂w-h-bv°p∂-Xv. kmam-\y-_p-≤n-bv°-∏pdw Nn¥n-°m-\m-{K-ln-°p∂ kmam-\yhm-b-\-°m¿, a‰p kmaq-lnI-im-kv{X-im-J-I-fn¬ \n∂p≈ A°mZ
anIhmb\°m¿, F√m kmaqlnI- i mkv { X- ˛ - a m- \ - h nIhnj- b hn-Zym¿∞n-Iƒ ˛ Ch-sc-bmWv Rm≥ hmb-\-°m-cmbn ap∂n¬
ImWp-∂-Xv. F∂m-¬, ]pkvXIw Fgp-Xn-°-gn-™-t∏mƒ hmb-\
-°m-cn-sem-cm-fmbn Fs∂-Øs∂ Rm≥ FÆn-bncp-∂p-sh∂pw a\n-em-bn. a‰p-≈-h-cn-ep-ap-]-cn-bm-bn, kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿°p-Xs∂
kz¥w ⁄m\-im-Jb
- psS BI¿jW-ßsf ho≠pw Is≠-tØ≠n
h∂n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂Xv \Ωp-sS Cu Ime-Øns‚ AS-bm-f-amImw.
aq∂p-Xcw Imc-W-L-S-I-ß-fmWv Cu ]pkvX-I-Øns‚ sam-Ø-Ønep≈ {]ta-bw, {]tXy-I- hn-j-b-߃, Ah-X-c-W-ssien F∂nhsb \n¿W-bn-®-Xv. H∂v, Rm≥ C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚
"kzm`m-hnI]uc'\√, ]n¬°m-eØv "kzm`m-hn-I-]u-cXzw' t\Snb
Bfm-sW∂ Imcyw. c≠m-a-Xmbn, A[ym-]-I-s\-∂ -\n-e-bn¬
Fs∂ cq]-s∏-Sp-Ønb A\p-`-h߃. aq∂m-a-Xmbn 1990 apX¬
C¥ybn¬ \S∂ kμnKv[-N-cn-{X-kw-`-h߃.
Cu ]pkv X Iw A`n- k w- t _m- [ \sNøp∂ {]tXy- I - h n- j - b Øn¬- ˛ C¥ysb ]T-\-h-kvXp-hm-bn-°m-Wp∂ kaq-l-im-kv{XØn¬ ˛ khn-tij]cn-io-e-\-sam∂pw t\Sn-bn-´n-√mØ Rm≥
{]tXyI ⁄m\-imJ-I-fpsS khn-tijho£-W-ßsf ]cn-c-£nt°-≠-Xns‚ Bh-iy-I-X-bv°v Du∂¬sImSp-°p-∂Xv hnNn-{X
-am-sW∂v tXm∂n-tb-°mw. _ncpZ˛-_n-cp-Zm-\-¥-c-X-e-ß-fn¬ kºZvimkv{Xw ]Tn-®-Xn-\p-tijw Hcp C¥y≥KthjWÿm]\Øn¬
]nF®vUn Kth-jWw ]mXn-h-gn-sb-Ønb thf-bn¬ Rm≥ Hcp
Ata-cn-°≥ k¿h-I-em-im-e-bn¬ Id-ßn-Øn-cn-s™-Øp-I-bpw
Aßs\ kaq-l-im-kv{X-sa∂ ⁄m\-im-J-bn-se-Øn-t®-cp-Ibpw
sNbvXp. AhnsS kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn¬ c≠m-a-sXmcp _ncp-Zm-\¥-c-_n-cp-Zhpw ]nF-®vUnbpw t\Sm-\n-S-h-∂p. ÿm]\-Øns‚
t{]m’m-l-\w, Np‰p-]m-Sp-I-fpsS kΩ¿±w, Ch IqSn-t®-cptºmƒ
49

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

]m›m-Xy-k¿hI-em-im-e-I-fnse an° hntZihnZym¿∞n-Ifpw
({]-tXy-In®v "aq∂mw-temI'hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ) kz¥w \mSn-s\-°p-dn®pXs∂ {]_-‘-sa-gp-Xp∂ ÿnXn-bn-se-Øp-∂p. Cu t{]c-W-tbmSp≈- X-e-Xn-cn™ FXn¿∏ns‚ ^e-ambn Rm≥ AhnsS "Xt±iob'amb hnjbw Xs∂ ]Tn-°p-sa∂v Dd-®p. Aßs\ Iment^m¿Wn-b-bnse XnI®pw apX-em-fnØkz`m-h-ap≈, Im¿jn-I
-hy-h-ÿ-bn¬ hwio-b-X-t]m-se-bp≈ "kmº-Øn-tI-Xc'i‡nI-fpsS \n¿Wm-bIkzm[o-\-sØ-°p-dn®v {]_-‘-sa-gp-Xn. F∂m¬,
B ka-bØv a\- n-em-°n-bn-s√¶nepw, C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{XØn¬ henb ]cn-N-b-sam∂pw Kth-j-W-Im-eØp kºm-Zn-°m≥
F\n°v Ign-™n-cp-∂n-√. Cß-s\-bmWv Fs‚ A\p-`-h-sa-∂ncn-s°, Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS \nb-X-Kp-W-ßsf C{X {]m[m-\ytØmsS Rm≥ Db¿Øn-°m-´p-∂-sX¥psIm≠v? am{Xa√, kmaqlnI-im-kv{X-im-J-Iƒ H‰bv°p \n¬°p-∂-Xns\ FXn¿°p∂
Im‰mWv C∂v hoin-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂-Xv- ˛ -\m-an∂v ⁄m\-imJm¥- c - ] - T - \ - ß ƒ (interdisciplinary studies), _lp- ˛ ⁄m\imJm
]T\߃ (multidisciplinary studies), ⁄m\-im-Jm-Xo-X-]-T-\-߃
(transdisciplinary studies) F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn-®m-Wt√m ]d-bm-dv. Xs∂bptam, kaq-li
- m-kv{XsØ kmaq-lnI\-ch
- w-ii
- m-kv{X-Øn¬ \n∂pt]mepw th¿Xn-cn-°-W-sa∂ imTyw Iptd AXn-cp-I-S-∂-Xt√?
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn-t∑¬ IÆn-a-bv°mØ Iq¿Ø-t\m´w Dd-∏n°pI hgn B {]tXy-I-⁄m-\-im-J-bv°v ssZhn-I-]-cn-thjw
\¬Imt\m ⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ°n-S-bn-ep-b¿∂n-´p≈ {]Xn-tcm-[-a-Xnep-Isf ho≠p-ap-b¿Ømt\m Rm\p-t±-in-°p-∂n-√. XpS¿∂p≈
A[ym- b - ß ƒ \mw henb H®∏msSm∂pw IqSmsX \c- h wi
im-kv{X-Øn-s‚bpw kº-Zvimkv{X-Øn-s‚bpw cmjv{So-b-hn⁄m\ob-Øn-s‚bpw Ncn-{X-Øn-s‚bpw a‰pw taJ-e-I-fn-tebv°v ]e
-h´w IS-∂p-I-b-dpw. Rm≥ ]d-bm≥ {ian-°p-∂Xv as‰m-∂mWv.
"⁄m\-im-Jm¥cw' (interdisciplinary) t]mep≈ te_-ep-Iƒ ImWptºmƒ \mw ad-∂p-t]m-Ip∂ H∂p-≠v. {Iam\pKX-amb hn⁄m\w
\n¿an-°-W-sa-¶n¬ bmsXmcp Zm£nWyhpw IqSm-sX-bp≈ Hgnhm-°epw Bh-iy-amWv F∂ hkvXpX. Cu Hgn-hm-°-ens\ Hcp
Ipd-hm-bn-´√ FtÆ-≠Xv; AXv AXym-h-iy-am-Wv. Nne hnj-bß-sftbm ]T-\-co-Xn-I-sftbm hi-s∏-Sp-Ø-W-sa¶n¬ a‰p Nne
hnj-b-ß-sfbpw ]T-\-co-Xn-I-sfbpw Hgn-hm-°ntb Xocq. ⁄m\im-Jm-¥-c-]-T-\w, _lp-⁄m-\-im-Jm-]-T\w apX-emb ]Z-߃
tIƒ°p-tºmƒ Ah-bn¬ \n∂v IqSp-X-embn Fs¥m-s°tbm
In´m-\p-s≠∂ Ahy-‡-am-sbmcp kqN\ \ap°v e`n-°m-\n-Sbp≠v; F∂m¬ B Dƒs°m-≈-en-t\m-sSm∏wXs∂ kw`-hn-°p∂
50

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

Hgn-hm-°-ep-Iƒ GsXms°sb∂v hy‡-am-°n-Ø-cm≥ Cu ]Z߃°p Ign-bp-∂p-an-√. CXns‚ ^e-am-bn \ΩpsS A⁄X
Fs¥∂v \mw Adn-bmsX t]mIp-∂p. Cu A]-ISw G‰hpw hy‡ambn ImWn®pXcp∂ DZmlcWw C¥y≥ kaq- l - i mkv { Xw
Xs∂. Htckabw AXv kmaq-lnI-\-c-hw-i-im-kv{Xhpw kaq-lim-kv{X-hp-am-sW∂v Ah-Imis∏Sp∂p≠-t√m. ]t£, Cu AhIm-i-hm-Zw Cu c≠p-im-J-I-fpsS Ak-a-amb hf¿®-bn¬ \n∂v
\ΩpsS {i≤sb AI-‰m-\m-Wp-X-Ip-∂Xv. c≠pIøpw Htc kzm[o\-tØm-sS-bp-]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bv°p-I-gn-bmsX
t]mb-Xp-sIm-≠mWv Rm\n-hnsS kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øns‚ \nbX
hy‡n-Xz-Øn\v Du∂¬ \¬Ip-∂-Xv ˛ _ew Ipd™ ssI°v
Xmßp\¬IpIsb∂ Dt±-iy-tØmsS.
s]mXpsh Ipd-®p-am{Xw {]m[m\yw e`n-®n-´p≈ hnjb-ß-sfbpw
ho£-W-ß-sfbpw Ipdn-®m-Wv Cu ]pkvXIw. Chsb kuI-cy]q¿hw H∂n®p\n¿Øp∂ te_-es{X "kaq-l-imkv{Xw'. Cu hnjb-߃ Ah-KW-\-bn-em-≠p-In-S-°m≥ CS-h-∂-Xn\p ]n∂nse
{]{In- b - I sf shfn- ® ØpsIm≠p- h - c m\pw CXp- ] - I - c n- ° p- s a∂v
{]tXyIw ]d-b-s´. kXy-Øn¬, Cusbmcpt±iysØ°mƒ Hcp
{]m[m\yhpw Cu te_-en-\n√; AXn¬ Fs¥√mw Dƒs∏´p,
Fs¥√mw AXn¬ \ns∂m- g n- h m- ° - s ∏- ´ p, Fs¥¥pImc- W Øm¬ ˛ C-sXm-s°-bmWv {]m[m-\y-a¿ln-°p∂ Imcy-߃. PmXn,
Nm¿®m-_-‘-߃, aXw, {Kmao-W-k-aq-lw, tKm{X-kw-kvImcw
F∂n-hbv°p {]m[m\yw \¬Ip∂ IrXn-Ifpw teJ-I-cp-amWv
"C¥y≥ kaq- l - i mkv { X'hpambn s]mXpsh ASp- Ø - _ ‘w
]pe¿Øp- ∂ Xv - B IrXn- I ƒ°mWv ⁄m\- i m- J - b v ° p- ≈ n¬
Gsd kzm[o-\w, B teJ-I-cmWv Gsd {]i-kvX¿. Cu IrXnI-sf√mw Xs∂ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-ho-£-WsØ Ah-ew-_n-°p-∂
-h-bp-amWv. F∂m¬ Cu {]ta-b-ß-fn¬ PmXn-sbm-gn®v as‰m∂pw
Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ {]Xy-£-s∏-Sp-∂n-√. am{X-a-√, kaq-l-im-kv{XtØmSv IqSp-X¬ A`n-ap-J-ambn \n¬°p∂ a‰p ]e {]ta-b-ßfpw
CXn-en-√ ˛ Im¿jn-I-_-‘-߃, hymh-km-bn-I-_‘-߃, P\kw-Jym-{]-h-W-XIƒ, am[y-a-߃ apX-em-b-h. Cu hnjb-߃
A{]-[m-\-ß-fmsWt∂m ]T-\m¿l-ß-f-s√t∂m CXp-sIm≠¿∞am-Ip-∂n-√-.- C°mcyw Du∂n-Øs∂ ]d-tb-≠-Xp-≠v. A©pkhntij{]Xn- ` m- k - ß - s f, kaq- l - X - e - Ø n¬ hym]n®pInS- ° p∂
"hnime' ho£-W-Øn-eqsS ImWm≥ ChnsS {ian-®-t∏mƒ \StØ≠n-h∂ Hgn-hm-°-ep-Iƒ, sImSp-t°-≠n-h∂ hne, am{X-am-W-h.
B[p-\n-I-X, tZio-b-X, Ak-aXzw, PmXn, BtKm-f-h¬I-cWw
F∂n-h-bmWv ChnsS N¿®-sN-ø-s∏-Sp∂ {]ta-b-߃. Ah Htc51

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

k-abw Bi-bhpw ÿm]-\hpw {]{In-b-bp-am-Wv. CXp-hsc kzbw
hy‡-sa∂p tXm∂n-b-Xns\ ]p\x-]-cn-tim-[n-°m-\mWv \man-XneqsS {ian-°p-∂-Xv. kzbwhy‡-sa∂ tXm∂-ep-≠m-°p∂sX√mw
F√mbvt]mgpw AkXyamsW∂Xp-sIm≠√. adn®v, ]cntim[\m
hnt[-b-am-°-s∏-SmØ hnizm-k-ß-sf-sb√mw t_m[-]q¿h-amb
hnNn- ¥ - \ - ß - f m- ° n- Ø o¿t°- ≠ Xv F{Xbpw Bh- i y- a m- s W∂
t_m[y-amWv CXn\p]n∂n¬.
C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Hu]-Nm-cnI ]cn-io-e\w e`n°mØXp-sIm≠pw ]cn-io-e\w e`n-®n-´n-√mØ hnj-b-߃ ]Tn∏n-°m≥ \n¿_-‘n-X-\m-b-Xp-sIm-≠p-amWv Cu ]pkvX-I-Ønse
hnj-bß
- s
- fbpw ho£-Wß
- s
- fbpw CØ-cØ
- n¬ sXc-s™-Sp-°m≥
Rm≥ Xocp-am-\n-®-Xv. kºZvimkv{Xm-[ym-]-I-\m-bn-cp∂ F\n°v
Hu]-NmcnI]cn-io-e\w e`n-®Xv B hnj-b-Øn-em-bn-cp-∂p. Atacn°≥ k¿h-I-em-im-e-I-fn¬ (Kth-j-W-X-e-Ønepw _ncp-ZXe
Ønepw) kaql-imkv{Xw ]n¬°m-eØv ]Tn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
F∂m¬, AhnsS C¥y hnjb-am-bncp-∂n-√. C¥y-bn-se-Øn-btijw kaq-l-im-kv{Xm-[ym-]\w Bcw-`n-®-t∏m-gmWv hyXymkw
icn°p]nSn-In-´n-bXv. ]pd-Øp-\n¬°p-∂-h-\m-sW∂ tXm∂-e√mbn-cp∂p {]iv\w-. B tXm∂¬ Cu ⁄m\-im-Jsb kw_-‘n®n-S-tØmfw Zu¿_-ey-a-√, i‡n-bmWv. kXy-Øn¬, I]-S-th-j°m-c-\m-sW∂ tXm∂-emWv F\n-°p-≠m-bXv. Hmtcm Xh-Wbpw
¢mkn¬s®∂v hnZym¿∞n-Isf ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS "Nn´' ]Tn-∏n°m≥ {ian-°p-tºm-sg√mw \qdp-h¿jw ]g-°-ap≈ kaq-limkv{X
Øns‚ apgp-h≥ `mchpw, XmWp-Xm-Wp-t]m-bvs°m-t≠-bn-cp∂ Fs‚
Npa-ep-Ifn¬ Aa¿∂n-cn-°p-∂p-sh∂ tXm∂-em-bn-cp∂p F\n-°v.
_ncp-Zm-\-¥c Xnbdnt]∏-dp-Iƒ ]Tn-∏n-°p-∂Xn-\n-S-bn-emWv Cu
kwL¿jw BZyap≠m-b-Xv. C¥y≥k¿h-I-em-imem]mTy-]-≤-XnI-fpsS bp‡n-b-\p-k-cn®v Xnbdnt]∏¿ F∂m¬ ]m›m-Xy-k-aq-limkv{X-Nn-¥-bpsS khn-ti-jkmaqlnI]›mØesØ-°pdn®v
bmsXm- ∂ papcnbmSmsX B Nn¥sb ]cn- N - b - s ∏- S p- Ø - e mWv .
ChnsS F\n-s°mcp sa®-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Rm≥ "Xnbdn'bn¬
{]tXyI sshZKv[ywt\Sn-bn-cp-∂p. Iptd h¿jw Xnbdnt]∏-dp-Iƒ
]Tn-∏n® ]cn-N-b-hp-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬ adp-`m-K-Øv, hmb-\
-km-a-{Kn-I-fpsS ImTn\yw, F-s‚ hntZ-i-Un-{Kn-bpsS ]f-]-f-∏v ˛ CXpc≠pw hnZym¿∞n-Isf {]Xn-tcm-[-Øn-em-°n. ]t£, Fs‚ {]I-Samb Bflm¿∞X Ahsc £am-io-e-cm-°n-sb∂ptXm∂p-∂p.
F¥m-bm-epw, Ah¿ kz¥w a\- n-em-hm-bvIbpw Cu¿jybpw
\∂m-sbm-fn-∏n-®p. Rmt\m, "Xnbdn' ]Tn-∏n®p hnPbn®p F∂
ss[cy-Øn¬ "{]tbmK' (applied) tImgvkp-I-fn-te°p IS-°p-Ibpw
52

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

sNbv X p. Xnb- d n- b n¬ ]Tn- ∏ n® Imcy- ß - f psS {]mtbm- K nI
{]tbmP\w hnZym¿∞n-I-fpsS ap∂n-e-h-X-cn-∏n-®p-sIm≠v Ah-cpsS
IøSnt\Sm-sa-∂m-bn-cp∂p Fs‚ {]Xym-i.
F∂m¬, ChnsS ta¬ss° Ah¿°m-sW∂v hf-sc-thKw
Xs∂ F\n°pa\- n-em-bn. C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Hu]Nm-cnI]cn-io-e-\-an-√m-bn-cp-∂-Xp-sIm≠v B ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS
kmam-\y-_p≤n Rm≥ kzmwio-I-cn-®n-cp-∂n-√. AXns‚ hyh-ÿIƒ°p-≈n¬\n∂p-sIm≠v {]Xn-kv]-μn-°m-\p≈ Ignhpap≠m-bncp-∂n-√. am{X-a-√, kz¥w (_u-≤n-I) bp≤-cw-K-ßsf hnth-I-]q¿hw
sXc-s™-Sp-°m-\p≈ {]mtbmKnIIgnhpw Rm≥ kºm-Zn-®n-cp-∂n√.
Cu Ah-ÿ-bn¬ Fs‚ hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ Fs‚ ap∂n-te-s°-Sp-Øn´
]®-bmb Pohn-Xm-\p-`-h-߃°p ap∂n¬ Rm≥ hfsc Zp¿_e
\m- b n- Ø o¿∂p. hnZym¿∞n- I ƒ Ah- c psS IÆn- e qsS kaq- l
-im-kv{X-sØbpw temI-sØbpw ]cn-tim-[n-°m-\p≈ t{]cW
F∂n¬ P\n-∏n-®-tXm-sS, kaq-l-im-kv{Xhpw temIhpw XΩn-ep≈
Kpcp-X-c-amb tN¿®°pdhns\ I≠ns√∂v \Sn-°mt\m B tN¿®
°pdhv tIhew anYy-bm-sW∂v hcp-Øn-Øo¿°p∂ hni-Zo-I-c-W߃ Na®v Xr]vXn-b-S-bmt\m F\n°v Ign-bn-s√∂ph∂p. icnbmb apdbv°v Ijv-W-߃ tN¿Øph®p-≠m-t°≠ Nn{X-Øn¬,
Ij-vW-ß-fpsS BIrXn icn-bm-bn-cn-°p-I-bpw F∂m¬ Ah-bnt∑¬ Nn{X-Øns‚ sX‰mb `mK-߃ A®-Sn®phcn-Ibpw sNbvXmep-≠mIp∂ Ah-ÿ-bmWv Rm≥ Xncn-®-dn-™-Xv. F∂n-e-Xp
-≠m-°nb A‘m-fn∏pw thZ-\bpw Nn√-d-bm-bn-cp-∂n-√. ]t£,
\s√mcp _u≤nI{]tIm-]\w IqSn-bm-bn-cp∂p Cu A\p-`-hw.
AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂ Fs‚ hnZym¿∞n-I-tfmSv henb IS-∏m-SmWv
F\n-°p-≈-Xv. AXp-t]m-se, Hu]-Nm-cnI]cn-io-e-\-an-s√-∂Xv
Hcp `mKyw Xs∂- b m- b n- c p- ∂ p- ˛ - A - ß - s \- b - √ mbn- c p- s ∂- ¶ n¬
XnI®pw BNm- c - { ]- I m- c - a - √ mØ Cu ⁄m\- i m- J m- { ]- t hiw
F\n°v e`n-°n-√m-bn-cp-∂p.
A⁄-X, ]cn-N-b-°p-d-hv Ch-bmWv F√m Ipg-∏-߃°pw
Imc-W-sa∂v BZy-Im-e-ß-fn¬ Rm≥ Icp-Xn. CXn-eev]w Igºpap-≠m-bn-cp∂p. IqSp-X¬ hmb-\-bp-≠m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n¬, hnZym¿∞nI-fpsS DZml-c-W-ßfpw hmZ-ßfpw IqSp-X¬ kq£va-ambn ]cntim-[n-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬, kn≤m-¥hpw kmaq-lnIm-\p-`-hhpw XΩn-ep≈
hnShv Iptd- t bsd \nI- Ø m≥ Ign- t ™- t \. Ipd- ™ - ] - £ w,
AØcw \nI-ج Bh-iy-an-√mØtXm A{]-k-‡tam Bb Ahk-c-ßsf Xncn-®-dn-bm-s\-¶nepw Ign-t™-t\. hmb-\-bpsS Bghpw
]c∏pw IqSn-b-t∏mƒ, hy‡n-I-fpsS A\p-`-h-ßsfbpw kzIm-cy-{]bm-k-ßsfbpw "kmaq-lnI-{]-iv\-ßfn'¬ \n∂v AS¿Øn-am-‰m≥
53

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

F\n°v hen-sbm-c-f-hp-hsc km[n-®-t∏mƒ, Iptd ]ptcm-KXn
ImWp-Ibpw sNbvXp. F∂m¬ h¿j-߃ \o≠ A[ym-]-\-Øn\pti-jhpw \nc-h[n tNmZy-߃ Ah-ti-jn-°pI- Xs∂ sNbvXp;
hy‡n-]-c-amb A⁄-X-bpsS ^e-ambn Ahsb ImWm≥ Ignbn-s√∂pw hy‡-ambn (hy‡n]c-amb A⁄X F¥mbmepw
Gdntbm Ipdt™m Ft∏mgpw ImWp- s a- ∂ - X mWv hkv X p- X - ; A-Xns‚ Afhpw Znibpw amdp-sa-∂p-am-{Xw).
DZm-l-c-W-Øn\v, k¿h-I-em-imemImº-kn¬ PmXn kPo-hhpw
Ft∏mƒ thW-sa-¶nepw Db¿∂p-h-cm-\n-S-bp-≈Xpamb hnjb
-am-bn-cp-∂p. hnZym¿∞n-I-fn¬ D∂-X-Pm-Xn-°mcpw Zen-Xcpw XΩn¬
IqsS-°qsS G‰p-ap-´n-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬, kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Cu
hnjbw [mcmfw ]Tn- ° - s ∏- ´ n- c p- s ∂- ¶ nepw hnZym¿∞n- I - f psS
A\p-`-hsØ t\cn´-v A`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNøp∂ cN-\-Iƒ XoscIp-d-hm-sW∂v Rm≥ Xncn-®-dn-™p. kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿ ]Tn®
PmXnbpw k¿h-I-em-im-e-bpsS ssZ\w-Zn\Pohn-X-Øns‚ `mK-amb
PmXnbpw XnI®pw c≠p {]Xn-`m-k-ß-fm-sW∂pt]mepw tXm∂n!
tcmKn°v acp-∂p-sIm-SpØp t_m[wsISpØn, tai-ta¬ InSØn,
tcmK-\n¿W-b-am-cw-`n°pw t]mse PmXnsb "t_m[wsISpØn'
¢mkvapdn-bn-se-Øn®v A]-{K-Yn-°mt\ F\n°v Ign-™n-cp-∂p≈q.
Imº-kn¬ AXv Poh-t\msS Ah-X-cn-®-t∏m-sg√mw Rm≥ F¥psN-ø-W-sa-∂-dn-bmsX Ipgßn. AXp-t]m-se, hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°v,
hnti-jn®pw s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ°v, hnhm-l-sa-∂Xv k¿h-{]-[m-\hpw
Nne-t∏m-sgms° AXo-h-th-Z-\m-P-\-I-hp-amb hnjb-am-bn-cp-∂p.
s]¨Ip-´n-I-fpsS _ncp-Zm-\-¥c]T-\sØ hnhmlw hsc-bp≈
kabwt]m°- e m- b mWv c£- I ¿Øm- ° - f n¬ ]ecpw I≠- X v .
F∂m¬, Cu sNdp-∏°
- m-cn-Ifpw Ah-cpsS ho´p-Imcpw XΩn¬ \S∂
kΩ¿±-˛-{]-Xn-k-Ω¿±-ßfpw X{¥-]-c-amb \o°ßfpw a‰p kaq-limkv{X-Ønse N¿®-I-fn¬ \n∂v- ˛- A-Xm-b-Xv, Nm¿®m-_-‘-߃,
hnhmlw, IpSpw_w F∂n-h-sb-∏-‰n-bp≈ N¿®-I-fn¬ \n∂v ˛
F{Xtbm {]Im-i-h¿j-߃ Zqsc-bm-bn-cp∂p! bYm¿∞temI
Ønse "kPm-Xobhnhmlw' (endogamy) AXy¥w k¶o¿Whpw
\nc-¥cw ]cn-Wm-a-hn-t[-b-hp-amb ÿm]-\-am-sW-∂pw \ne-hn
-ep≈ A°m-Z-anI]T-\-ßsf AXp hfscthKw ]n∂n-em-°p-∂psh∂pw hy‡-am-bn-cp-∂p.
kao-]-ÿ-ß-fmb Cu A\p-`-h-ßsf am{X-a√ kaq-l-imkv{Xw
A`n-kw-t_m-[\ sNøm-Xn-cp-∂-Xv-;- A-h-sb-°mƒ hym]vXn-tb-dnb
A\p-`-h-ßfpw AhKWn°s∏-´p. Rm≥ A[ym-]\w XpS-ßnb
ImeØv Xo£v W hpw Xn‡- h p- a m- b n- c p∂ afi¬k- a - c - ß ƒ
Ahkm\n®n´v \mtfsd Bbn-cp-∂n-√. _m_dnakvPnZv s]mfn®
54

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

kw`hw sXm´p-]n-∂mse D≠m-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. kmap-Zm-bn-Ie-lf \K-c-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I-hp-ambn. Cu c≠pkw`h-ßfpw Fs∂ Bg-Øn¬ _m[n-®p. F∂m¬, sXmgn¬
]-£Øp\n∂pt\m°p-tºmƒ BZy-tØXv G‰hpw thZ-\m-P-\-IambntØm∂n. Zi-I-ß-tfmfw PmXn-sb-∏‰n ]Tn® ⁄m\-im-J
bv°v afi¬{]iv\-sØ-∏‰n ]{X-Ønse tImf-sa-gp-Øp-Im-cn¬
\nt∂m ]fin-X-ÿm\w kzb-a-h-Im-i-s∏-´-h-cn¬ \nt∂m hyXykvX-ambn ]d-bm≥ bmsXm-∂p-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-s√∂ kXyw AwKoI-cn-°m≥Xs∂ _p≤n-ap-´p-tXm-∂n.
ka-Im-en-I-kw-`-h-߃°n-S-bn-eqsS hgn-Im-´p-∂, As√-¶n¬
Fßs\ Pohn-°-W-sa-∂p-]-tZ-in-°p∂ sdUn-sabvUv ssI∏p-kvXI-\n¿am-W-a√ kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-⁄m-\-im-J-I-fpsS tPmen-sb∂v
\n w-ibw ]d-bmw. F¶n-epw, apsºm-cn-°epw e`n-®n-´n-√mØ{X
kº-∂-amb Ah-k-c-߃ ssIh-s∂-¶nepw Ah-tbmSv th≠hn[w {]Xn-I-cn-°m≥ C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\v Ign-bmsX
t]mb- s X- ¥ p- s Im≠v ? Ign™ Ccp- ] Xph¿j°mew kaq- l
- i m- k v { X- Ø ns‚ kz¥w Zi- I - ß - f m- t I- ≠ n- b n- c p∂p. Imc- W w,
kzX{¥C¥y-bpsS Ncn-{X-Øn-em-Zy-ambn tZi-cmjv{Sw t\cn´
"henb' {]iv\-߃°v kmº-ØnI kz`m-h-Øn-tesd kmaq-ln-Ikz-`m-h-am-Wp-≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv. ]©m-_nepw Imivao-cnepw B `mK߃ C¥y- hn- ´ - I - e - W - s a∂ Bh- i y- h p- a mbn cwKØph∂
{]ÿm-\ß
- ƒ hwiob-˛a
- X
- X
- ∑- (ethnic-religious identity)I-fpsSta¬
Db¿∂p-h-∂-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p. AXp-t]mse PmXn-c-ln-X-sa∂v AhIm-i-s∏´ a[y-h¿K \K-c-Po-hn-X-]-›m-Ø-e-Øn-tebv°v PmXn
IS∂p- I-b-dn-bXv, afi¬hn-hmZw s]m´n-∏p-d-s∏-´Xv, tZio-b
-cm-jv{So-b-Øns‚ lrZ-b-`m-K-Øp-Xs∂ kmap-Zm-bnIhnS-hns\
Db¿Øn-°m´n-s°m≠v lnμp-Xz-hm-ZØ
- ns‚ hc-hp-≠m-bXv, BtKmfh¬I-c-W-Øns‚ kmwkvIm-cnI {]Xym-Lm-X-ß-sf-°p-dn®v ]c-s°bp≈ BImw-£- ˛ Cu kw`-h-hn-Im-k-߃ (]-e-Xn¬ \mepam-{Xta ChnsS N¿®bv°p hnt[-bam°p-∂p-≈q) F√mw Xs∂
kaq-l-im-kv{Xw, kº-Zvim-kv{X-sam-gn-®p≈ a‰p kmaq-lnIim-kv{X߃ F∂nhbv°v Imcy-ambn CS-s]-Sm-\p≈ Ah-k-c-߃ Xs∂bm-bn-cp-∂p. F∂m¬, B sh√p-hn-fn-Iƒs°m∏w Db-cm≥ \ΩpsS
{]Xn-I-c-W-߃°v Ign-™n-´n-s√-∂mWv tXm∂p-∂-Xv. AsX-¥psIm-s≠-t∂m Fß-s\-sbt∂m hni-Zo-I-cn-°m≥ F\n°p Ignbn-√. Cu hnj-a-k-‘n°p IpdpsI Nn¥sb IS-Øn-s°m≠v
sXfn®w t\Sm-\mWv Cu ]pkvX-I-Øn-eqsS Rm≥ {ian-°p-∂-Xv.
F∂p-h®v aXn-ep-I-fn¬ ]e-t∏mgpw IpØn-h-c®\ne-bn¬ \mw
55

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

ImWm-dp≈ ssewKn-I-tcm-K-Nn-In-’m-tI-{μ-ß-fpsS ]c-ky-ß-fnse∂ t]mse, "F√m {]iv\ß
- fpw ]cn-lc
- n°m'sa∂p-d∏p\¬Ip∂
am{¥nI-]-≤Xn Is≠-Øm≥ C¥y≥ kaq-lim-kv{X-Øn\v Ignbp
sa∂pIcp-Xp-∂Xv hnUvVnØw am{X-am-bn-cn-°pw. ]t£, Cu
]pkvXIw {]iv\-ß-fpsS Fcn-Xo-bn¬ FÆ-sbm-gn-°n-s√∂pw Ah
bv°p ]cn-lmcw ImWm≥ klm-bn-°p-sa-∂pw kaq-l-im-kv{XhnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°pw A[ym-]-I¿°pw CX-c-km-aq-lnIim-kv{X
hnZym¿∞n-Iƒ°pw {]tbmP\w sNøp-sa∂pw Rm≥ {]Xym-in°p∂p.
F√m-‰n-\p-ap-]-cn, km[m-c-W-hm-b-\-°m-cn¬ Cu ]pkvXIw
temIsØ "tIm¶-Æn-´p-t\m-°pI' F∂ AXn-kq-£va-sa-¶nepw
]cn-Nn-XI
- m-gvNI
- sf ]nSn-®p-Ip-ep-°p∂ Ie-sb-°p-dn®p≈ IuXpIw
h¿[n-∏n°-W-sa∂v Rm\m-{K-ln-°p-∂p. ssZ\w-Zn\temI-Øns‚
kmam-\y-_p-≤n-bn-eqsS k©-cn-°m\pw Ah¿°v Xm¬]-cy-ap-≠mtb°mw. Hcp ]t£, ssZ\w-Zn\temI-Øns‚ kmam-\y-_p-≤nsb
hna¿in-°p∂ B ⁄m\imJbpsS kmam\y_p≤nsbØs∂
Ah¿ ]cntim[nt®°pw. ImcWw, kmam-\y-_p≤n cq]-s∏-Sp-∂sX-ßs\ F∂-dn-bm≥ Ign-™m¬, AXns\ ]p\¿\n¿an-°m-\p≈
hgn-I-sf-∏-‰nbpw \ap°v Nn¥n-°m≥ Ign-t™°pw.
Ipdn∏pIƒ
1. C°mcyw ÿm]n-°m-\mbn Ethnomethodology F∂ kaq-limkv{X-im-J-bpsS apJy-ssk-≤m-¥n-I-\m-bn-cp∂ Harold Garfinkel
"hn≈-ep-≠m-°¬]co£W߃' (breaching experiments) F∂p
t]cn- ´ p- h n- f n® Nne ]co- £ - W - ß ƒ \S- Ø p- I - b p- ≠ m- b n. Ah
h≥hnhm-Z-ap-≠m-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. temkv B©-e-knse Iment^m¿Wnbmk¿h-I-em-im-e-bnse Xs‚ _ncp-Z-hn-Zym¿∞n-I-sfbmWv At±lw CXn¬ ]¶m-fn-I-fm-°n-b-Xv. kaq-l-Øn¬ \ne-hnep≈ ]tcm£ kmaqlnI DS-º-Sn-I-fn¬ a\x-]q¿hw hn≈-ep
≠m°pwhn[w s]cp-am-dm≥ At±lw hnZym¿∞n-Isf t{]cn-∏n-®p.
{]Nm-c-Øn-ep≈ kmam-\y-_p-≤n-bp-]-tbm-Kn-°m≥ hnk-Ω-Xn-°pI
hgn, CsXmcp ]co- £ Ww am{X- a m- s W∂v Adn- h n- √ m- Ø - h sc
Xß-fpsS {]hr-Øn-I-fpsS ]q¿W-hn-i-Zo-I-cWw \¬Im≥ \n¿_‘n-X-cm-°n-s°m-≠mWv Cu ]co-£-W-߃ apt∂-dn-b-Xv. F∂m¬
km[m-c-W-kw-`m-j-W-ß-sf-t∏mepw AXy¥w thZ\m-P-\-I-ßfm°n-Øo¿Øp, Cu "]co-£-W-߃'. Dujva-f-ß-fm-bn-cp∂ _‘ß-sf-t∏mepw XI¿®-bpsS h°n-se-Øn-®p. AXp-sIm-≠p-Xs∂
hfsc thKw Ah Dt]-£n-°-s∏-´p.
56

kaq-lsØ ]mfn-t\m-°p-tºmƒ

2. ASn-ÿm-\-]-c-am-bn, ]m¿∞m Nm‰¿PnbpsS {]i-kvX- Ir-Xnbn¬ (1986) _¶n-w-N{μ NtXm-]m-[ym-b-bp-tS-sX∂v hnfn-°-s∏-Sp∂
tZio-ba
- m-Xr-Ib
- m-WnXv. C¥y≥ tZio-bX
- b
- psS Ncn-{X-Øn¬ A∂pap-X-en∂p-h-scbpw Cu ASn-ÿm\{]ta-b-Øns‚ hI-t`-Z-߃
NnX-dn-°n-S-°p∂p.
3. Um\ntb¬ se¿\¿ cNn® {]ikvX {KŸ-Øns‚ t]cmWv
D≤-cWNn”-߃°p-≈n¬.
4. 1950-I-fn¬ C¥y-bn¬ sXmgn¬]c-amb PohnXw Bcw-`n-®
- I m- e Øv Fw.- F ≥.- { io- \ n- h mkv t\¿hn- ] - c o- X - a mb A`n- { ]m- b
-amWv {]ISn-∏n-®n-cp-∂-Xv. AXm-b-Xv, k¿thK-th-j-W-tØm-Sp≈
{]nbsØ FXn¿°p-Ibpw ]¶m-fn-Ø-Øn-eq-sS-bp≈ \nco-£-WØns‚ coXnsb Ah-K-Wn-°p∂ {]h-W-X-Isf hna¿in-°p-Ibpw
sNøp∂ \ne-]m-Sm-bn-cp∂p At±-l-Øn-t‚-Xv. F∂m¬ 20˛mw
\q‰m≠ns‚ A¥y-tØmsS sNcn∏v at‰ ]mZ-Øn-tebv°pamdn.
Ign™ 50 h¿j-Øn-\n-S-bn¬ C¥y≥ kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn¬ Imcyamb Ne-\-ap-≠m-°nb shdpw A©v k¿th-]-T-\-ß-sf As√-¶n¬
ÿnXn-hn-hc°W-°p-Isf apJy-ambn B{i-bn-°p∂ ]T-\-ßsf,
t]sc-SpØp]d-bm≥ Ffp-∏a√.
5. hnI-k-\-Øn¬ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-Øn-t‚-Xmb kw`m-h-\-Isfm∂p-an-s√∂v kqNn-∏n-°m-\√ Rm≥ {ian-°p-∂-Xv. AXp-t]mse
`c- W - I q- S - k w- c w- ` - ß - f psS `mK- a m- I p- ∂ Xv F√m- b v t ∏mgpw \√XmsW∂pw F\n°-`n-{]m-b-an-√. Cu c≠p-Im-cy-ß-sf-°p-dn®pw
IqSpX¬ ]Izamb Aht_m[w \ap-°n-∂p-≠v. ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS
kmaq-lnIbp-‡nsb ]n≥Xp-S¿∂v {]h-Nn-°m≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp∂
^e-߃ F¥p-sIm≠v bmYm¿∞y-am-bn-s√∂p Nn¥n-°m≥ am{Xta
Rm≥ {ian-°p-∂p-≈q- ˛- ⁄m-\-im-J-I-sf-∏‰n A∂v \ne-hnep≠mbn- c p∂ [mc- W - I - f p- s Sbpw hnI- k - \ - Ø ns‚ A\n- h mcy
]n¥pS¿®-I-fp-sSbpw shfn-®-Øn¬.
6. kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄¿°n-S-bn¬Øs∂ Akm-[m-c-W-\mb
kXojv ks_¿hmƒ Cu {]ta-b-sØ-°p-dn®v Bg-Øn¬ Xnc-bp∂Xpw A\p- ` h{]Xy- £ - h p- a mb Hcp teJ- \ - s a- g p- X n- b n- ´ p- ≠ v
(Saberwal, 1999). CX-√msX Cu hnj-b-sØ-°p-dn®v {]apJ]finX-cpsS cN-\-I-fmbn as‰m-∂p-an-√, Fs‚ Adn-hn¬.

57

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

2
"khntij B[p\nIX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an°ptºmƒ

B

[p\nIX (modernity), ]mcºcyw (tradition) ˛ Cc´]nd∂
Cu {]tab߃ t\¿hn]coXßfmbmWv k¶ev]n°s∏Smdv.
kaImenI C¥y≥ kmam\y_p≤nbpsS F√m `mKßfnepw Ch
k¿hkm[mc-Wambn I≠phcp∂p. Hcp]t£ C¥ybnse ka
ImenIkmam\y-_p≤nbn¬ km¿h{XnIambn ImWs∏Sp∂ {]tab
ßfn¬ G‰hpw {it≤bamb tPmSnbmWnh. "B[p\nI'ambn
Øocm≥, AYhm "tamtU¨' BIp-hm\p≈ tamlw \ΩpsS tZi\n¿am-W{- ]-{In-bb
- psS Xo{hhpw hnhm-Z]
- q¿W-hp-amb Hcp hi-amWv.
F√m-bn-SØpw kz¥w Nn”-ßfpw e£-W-ßfpw {]k-cn-∏n-°pw
hn[w \ΩpsS tZiob-a\ n¬ Cu tamlw cqV-aq-e-am-bn-cn-°p∂p.
DZmlc-WØn\v, ÿm]\߃°pw a‰pw "tamtU¨' F∂p\mw
t]cn-Sp-∂-Xn-s\-°p-dn®v Nn¥n-®p-t\m-°p-I. 20˛mw \q‰m-≠ns‚ XpS°-Øn¬ I¬°´bn¬ \n∂n-d-ßnb AXn{]-i-kvXamb Hcp {]kn≤o-I-c-W-Øns‚ t]cv "tamtU¨ dnhyq' F∂m-bncp-∂p. ASp-ØIm- e Øv kzImcyh¬Icn°s∏´ Hcp s]mXp- t a- J emIº\n
D≠m°n-bn-cp∂ sdm´n-bpsS t]cpw \ap°v kp]-cn-Nn-X-am-Wv ˛
"tamtU¨ {_Õv'. \ΩpsS \m´n¬ F{Xsb{X IS-Ifpw sNdp-InS_nkn\kp-Ifpw Cu t]¿ kzoIcn-®n-cn-°p-∂p ˛ "tamtU¨' Xø¬°-S-Iƒ, apSn-sh´v keq-Wp-Iƒ, ss{U¢o-\nMv IS-Iƒ, ]eNc°pI-S-Iƒ... Aß-s\b-ßs\ t]mIp∂p B ]´n-I. tZi-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈
\K-c-ß-fnepw ]´W-ß-fnepw "tamtU¨' F∂p t]cn´ AkwJyw
sNdp-ÿm-]\
- ß
- f
- p≠v. \m´nse sNdp-_n-kn-\- p-Iƒ°v \mw G‰hpa-[nIw sImSp-°m-dp≈ t]tc-sX∂v I≠p-]n-Sn-°m≥ Hcp a’cw
\S-Ønbm¬ (t]cv kw⁄m-\maw Bbn-°qSm, Cw•ojv t]cm-bncn-°Ww F∂o c≠p-hy-h-ÿ-Iƒ ]men-®p-sIm-≠p≈ a’-c-am-sW¶n¬) Rm≥ aq∂pt]cp-I-fpsS taembncn°pw ]¥bw hbv°pI :
58

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

H∂v, "tamtU¨', c≠v, "\mj-W¬', aq∂v "en_¿´n'.
_kv, temdn apX-emb hml-\-ß-fpsS ]n≥`m-KØv ]e-Xcw
hmNI- ß ƒ, D]- t Z- i - ß ƒ, kq‡- ß ƒ apX- e m- b h FgpXn
hbv°p∂ coXn \ΩpsS \m´n¬ k¿h-km-[m-c-W-am-Wv. s]mXp
ÿeß-fn¬ kmwkvImcn-I-\n¿amWw \S-°p∂ Hcn-S-am-Wv \ap°o
_ ns‚ ]n≥`m-K-hpw. C-¥y-bn¬ I≠p-h-cp∂ Hcp khn-ti-jco-Xn-bs{X CXv. Aßs\ Fgp-Xn-h® Hcp ap{Zm-hmIyw CXmWv :
"D≥tl `o ]Xm Nte, lw `o tamtU¨ tl' ˛ lnμn-bm-Wv.
"Ahcpw a\- n-em-°-s´, \Ωfpw tamtU¨ BsW∂v!' F∂mWv
Cu hmN-I-Øns‚ A¿∞w. Cu A[ym-b-Øns‚ AS-bm-f-hmIyw
Xs∂-bmWv Cu hmN-Iw. kXy-Øn¬ CXn\v Ipd-®p-IqSn ]g-°
-ap-≠v-. 1980-I-fn¬ [mcmfw {]Nm-c-ap≠mbncp∂ Hcp Snhn -]-cky
Øns‚ Ipdn-°p-sIm-≈p∂ Ah-km-\h
- mNIambncp∂p AXv. ]ns∂Cu ASp-ØnsS "tamtU¨' BIp-∂-Xn-s\-∏‰n hf-sc-b-[nIw ]dbm-dp-≈Xv C¥y GXm≠v Bh¿Ø\ hnckXbp≠m°p∂ hn[w
]S®nd°ns°m≠ncn°p∂ "kuμ-cy-dmWn'am-cmWv. ankv thƒUv,
ankv bqWn- t hgv k v XpS- ß nb kuμ- c y- a - ’ - c - ß - f psS "_p≤n]co£m'du≠p-I-fnse tNmZy-߃°v DØ-cambn Ah¿ "C¥ybpsS A¥x-k-Ø-'sb-°p-dn®v ]d™ptI´XnXmWv ˛ "B[p\nIXsbbpw ]mcºcy-sØbpw ]c-kv]cw ebn-∏n-°p-∂-XmWv C¥ybpsS A¥x-kØ!'. P\-{]nb C¥y≥kn\nabn¬- ˛ A-Xns‚ F√m
{]mtZ-in-I-h-I-t`-Z-ß-fn-epw- ˛- k¿h{X \nd-™p-\n¬°p∂ {]tabamWv B[p- \ nI- ˛ - ] m- c - º - c y- e - b - \ - Ø n- t ‚- s X∂v C¥y°msc
{]tXyIw ]Tn-∏n-t°-≠-Xn√! Iptd-°qSn "Db¿∂' kmwkvImcnI
cwKßfpsSbpw ÿnXn- adn®√. "B[p\nI'sa∂mse¥v? AXn
t\mSv F¥p kao]\-amWv \mw kzoI-cn-t°-≠Xv? Cu tNmZy-߃
C¥y-bnse apJy-`mj-I-fn-se√mw AXnXo{h-amb N¿®-Iƒ°v
hgn-sbm-cp-°n-bn-´p≠v. Ie-I-fn-epw, hnti-jn®v Nn{X-Ie, \rØw
F∂nh-bn¬, Cu tNmZy-߃ apg-ßn-t°-´n-´p≠v.
"B[p-\n-Iw' AYhm "tamtU¨' F∂ Bi-b-Øn\v C¥y≥
kmaqlnIPo- h n- X - Ø n¬ Cu henb km∂n[yw ssIh- ∂ Xv
Fßs\? C{X henb "kw`h'ambn AXpamdn-b-sX-¥p-sIm≠v?
Cu tNmZy-߃°p≈ Nne DØ-c-߃ Xo¿®-bmbpw \ΩpsS
bnSbn¬ {]Ncn°p∂p≠v. kmam\y_p≤n°p\nc-°p-∂, G‰hpw
km[m-c-Whpw icn-bp-sa∂ tXm∂-ep-f-hm-°p∂ DØ-c-ß-fm-W-h.
]Xn-\-©p-h-b pIgn-™, AXm-bXv, GXm≠p aqs∏-Øn-b, F√m
hy‡n-Ifpw Ch-bn¬ GsX-¶nepw Nne-Xns\ Btem-Nn®p kzoIcn®n-´p-≠mhpw; \nXy-k-Xy-sa-t∂mWw a\- n¬ sIm≠p-\-S-°p-∂p
59

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

≠mhpw. "tamtU¨ Bh¬' "kw`h'amIp-∂Xv AXns\ \mw AXnbmbn B{K-ln-°p-∂-Xp-sIm-≠mWv; \mw "tamtU¨' BsW∂
Imcyw F√m-hcpw AwKo-I-cn-°-W-sa∂ Bi \Ωn-ep-≠v. ]t£,
CtXm-sSm-∏w-X-s∂, "tamtU¨' IqSnt∏m-I-cp-sX-∂pw, "shdpw
tamtU¨ am{Xw' Bh-cp-sX∂pw \mw Icp-Xp-∂p. AXm-bXv, \ΩpsS
kz¥-amb Nne hyh-ÿb
- v°p-≈n¬ tamtU¨ Bhm-\mWv \ap°p
sImXn. F∂m¬ Cu hyh-ÿ-Isf¥m-Wv, F¥m-bn-cn-°Ww
F∂Xns\-°p-dn®v ]e-t∏mgpw henb Xo¿®-sbm∂pw \ap-°n-√.
kmam\y_p≤nbnepZn°p∂ Cu DØcw Xr]vXnIcam-sW∂v
tXm∂p-∂pt≠m? CX{X tami-a√ tIt´m- ˛- ]t£, CXp aXnsb∂p tXm∂p-∂-h¿ apt∂m-´p- hm-bn-t°-≠-Xn-√. ImcWw kmam\y_p- ≤ n- s Im≠v Xr]v X n- b - S - b m- Ø - h ¿°p th≠n- b m- W t√m Cu
]pkvXIw! B Iq´cnsemcm-fmWv \nß-sf-¶n¬, B[p-\n-I-X-˛-]mcºcyw F∂o Cc´-Iƒ aSp-∏p-f-hm-°pw-hn[w \ΩpsS Nn¥-bn¬
k¿h{X IS-∂p-I-b-dn-b-sX-ß-s\-sb∂v CS-bvs°-t∏m-sg-¶nepw
Btem-Nn-®n-´p-s≠-¶n¬, Xo¿®-bmbpw XpS¿∂p-hm-bn-°p-I.
"tamtU¨' : Hcp eLpkmaqlnINcn{Xw
"tamtU¨' F∂ hm°v Cw•o-jn-se-Øn-bXv ]pcm-X\ eØo≥
`mj-bn¬\n∂m-Wv. {InkvXp-hn-\p-ap-ºp≈ Bdmw\q‰m-≠p-ap-X-se¶nepw Cu hm°v eØo-\n¬ {]N-cn-®n-cp-∂p-sh∂v ]d-bmw. {]NmcØn¬ h∂-Xn-\p-tijw GXm≠v 1200 h¿j-°m-e-tØmfw Cu
hm°n\v A¿∞w GsX-¶nepw ka-Im-en-I-bp-K-Øns‚ khn-tijX F∂m-bn-cp-∂p. AXmb-Xv, Cu hm°v Hcp kmam-\y-]-Z-am-bncp∂p- ˛ - k - a - I m- e nI- L ´sØ ap≥Im- e - L - ´ - ß - f n¬\n∂v th¿
Xncn®pImWn-°p∂ H∂v. ]t£ GI-tZiw 18-˛mw \q‰m-≠m-b-t∏mƒ
Cu hm°n\v Iptd-°qSn \n›n-X-amb ]pXn-sbm-c¿∞w ssIh-∂p.
""]Sn-™m-d≥ bqtdm-∏n¬ 17-˛mw \q‰m-≠n\pw 19-˛mw \q‰m-≠n-\p-anSbv°v Db¿∂p-h∂ A]q¿h-km-aq-lnIkw-hn-[m\w; AXp-ambn
_‘-s∏´ aqey-߃, ÿm]-\-߃ F∂ A¿∞-tØm-Sp-IqSn
"tamtU¨' F∂ ]Zw {]tbm-Kn-°-s∏´pXpS-ßn.1
Cw•ojv `mj-bn¬ 19-˛mw \q‰m-≠n-\p-apºv "tamtU¨' F∂ ]Z
{]tbm-K-Øn\v \nμm-kq-N-I-amb [z\n-bm-Wp-≠m-bn-cp-∂-Xs{X;
AXn\v \ntj[mflIm¿∞ambncp∂p. tjIvkv]n-b¿ Cu A¿∞Øn-emWv AXp {]tbm-Kn-®-sX∂v kndn¬ ªm°v hmZn-°p∂p
(Black 1966 : ]pdw 5). F∂m¬ Cu Ah-ÿbv°p am‰-ap-≠m-bn.
Cu am‰-sØ-°pdn®v sdbva≠v hneywkv Cßs\ ]d-bp∂p : ""19˛mw
\q‰m-≠nepw (Cu hm°ns‚ A¿∞-[z-\n) FXn¿Zn-i-bn-tebv°v
\oßp-I-bp-≠mbn. Cu \o°Øns‚ HSp-hn¬, "tamtU¨' F∂m¬
60

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

^eØn¬ "t`Zs∏SpØn-bXv', "Xr]vXnIc
ambXv ' , "Imcy- £ - a - a m- b Xv ' Fs∂m- s °bmsW-∂p-h-∂p.'' (Williams 1983 : 208-9).2
BZyw-]-d™ kmam-\ym¿∞w ˛ -A-Xm-b-Xv,
"h¿Ø-am-\-Im-e-Øns‚ `mKw', As√-¶n¬
"h¿Ø-am-\t- Øm-SS- pØp \n¬°p-∂Xv' F∂
A¿∞w -˛- Hcfhphsc "tamtU¨' F∂
hm°v C∂pw [z\n-∏n-°p-∂p-≠v. F∂m¬
C∂v "ka-ImenIw' (contemporary) F∂
sdbva≠v hneywkv
hm°v B A¿∞sØ IqSp-X¬ i‡-ambn
[z\n-∏n-°p-∂p≠v. AXp-t]mse "A\-¥cw' (post) F∂ hm°v
Iq´n-t®¿Ø ]pXn-b -]-Z-ßfpw Cu A¿∞w t]dm≥ XpS-ßn-bncn-°p∂p- ˛ -D-Zm-l-c-W-Øn\v "B[p-\n-Im-\-¥cw' (post-modern).
Cu hm°ns‚ kao-]-Im-e-{]-tbm-K-ß-fn¬\n∂v hy‡-am-Ip∂
Hcp Imcy-an-XmWv : Cu c≠¿∞-߃ XΩn¬ Ak-a-Xz-]q¿Whpw
Ipg™p- a - d n- ™ - X p- a mb _‘- a m- W p- ≈ - X v . BZyw ]d™
kmam\ym¿∞w c≠ma-Xp-]-d™ \n›n-Xm¿∞-Øn\v t\cnt´m
A√m-sXtbm Iogvs∏-´p-\n¬°p∂p C∂v. AXm-bXv ]m›mXy˛
bqtdm-]y≥ kmaq-lnIhy-h-ÿ-bpsS AXy-]q¿h-Xsb [z\n-∏n
-°p-∂-Xmb \n›n-Xm¿∞Xew, "GsX-¶nepw ka-ImenImhÿ
bpsS khn-tijX' F∂ kmam\ym¿∞-Øn\p-ta¬ Db¿∂p\n¬°p-∂psh-∂¿∞w. Cu ta¬t°m-bva-bpsS A\-¥-c-^-e
-sa-s¥-∂-dn-b-W-sa-¶n¬ "tamtU¨' F∂ hm°ns\ XXvImew
am‰n-\n¿Øn-s°m≠v "tamtU-ssW-tkj≥' (modernization) AYhm
"B[p-\n-Ih
- ¬IcWw' F∂ ]ZsØ ]cn-tim-[n-°W
- w. Xmc-Xtay\
\n›n-X-amb Hcp \nesb [z\n-∏n-°p∂ hm°mWv "tamtU¨'.
F∂m¬ "tamtU-ssW-tk-j≥' Ne-\m-h-ÿ-I-sfbpw {]{In-b
-I-sfbpw am‰-sØ-bp-amWv IqSp-X-embn Ipdn-°p-∂Xv. Cu hm°v
Cw•ojv ]-Zt- Im-iØ
- n-tebv°p IS-∂Xv 18-˛mw \q‰m-≠n-emWv. sI´nS
߃ apX¬ hm°p-I-fpsS kvs]√nMv hsc-bp-≈-hbv°p kw`-hn°p∂ am‰-Øn-s\bpw t`Zs∏-Sp-Ø-en-s\bpw Ipdn-°p∂ ]Zambn
cp∂p AXv. tamtU¨ F∂ \ma-]-Z-Øn\v ip`-kq-N-Im¿∞-ß
-fp-≠mbn-Øp-S-ßnb Ime Øp-X-s∂-bmWv "tamtU-ssW-tk-j≥'
F∂ hm°v {]Xy-£s∏´p XpS-ßn-b-Xv. 20-˛mw \q‰m-≠n-em-Is´,
Cu hm°v k¿h-km-[m-c-W-am-bn-Øo¿∂p. tNmZywsNøm-\m-hm-Øhn[w KpW-{]-Zhpw A`n-e-j-Wo-b-hp-am-b-Xns\ kqNn-∏n-°m≥
kmam-t\y\ {]tbm-Kn-°-s∏-Sp∂ ]Z-ambn "tamtU¨' amdn F∂v
sdbva≠v hneywkv ]d-bp∂p (Williams 1983 : 208-9). KpWm-flI
- amb
am‰sØ AYhm t`Z-s∏-Sp-Øens\ Ip-dn-°p∂ kmam-\y-]-Z-ambn
61

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

amdn AXv; hnti-jn®pw b{¥-߃, kmt¶Xn-Ih
- nZy apX-em-bh
- sb kw_-‘n-®v. bqtdm]y≥ ⁄mt\m-Zb (enlightenment) L´-Ønep-bn¿s°m≠ B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS (modernity) amXr-Ib
- n¬ ap≥Iq´n \n›-bn-°-s∏´
]cn- W maw F∂ A¿∞- Ø nt\mSv Cu
hm°ns\ ASp-∏n-°p∂-hn-[-Øn-semcp h{IoI-cWw C°m-e-Øp-≠mbn F∂p Npcp-°w.
h¿Ø- a m- \ - I m- e sØ ap≥Imeßfn¬
A¿Pp≥ A∏m-Zpssc
\n∂v th¿Xn- c n®pI≠p- s Im≠v AXns\
B[p-\n-Ia
- mbn ho£n-°m-\p≈ a‰p {ia-߃ D≠mbn-´p-≠.v F∂m¬
B[p-\n-IX Ah-bn¬\n∂v hyXy-kvX-am-bn-cn-°p-∂p. B[p-\n-IX
Ime-߃ XΩn-ep≈ Xmc-X-ay-hy-Xym-k-ß-sf-°p-dn®v hmZ-ap-∂
b
- n-°p-∂X
- n¬ HXp-ßn-bn-√. as‰-√m-Øn-s\bpw At]-£n®v F{Xbpw
ASn-ÿm-\]
- c
- a
- mb DXvIr-jvSX
- b
- mWv AXv Ah-Imi-s∏-´X
- v. bqtdm
-]y≥ B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS Cu kz`m-h-sØ-°p-dn®v {]i-kvX- \-chw-iim-kv{X-⁄-\mb A¿Pp≥ A∏m-Zpssc Cßs\ ]d-bp∂p :
[bq-tdm-]y≥ B[p-\n-I-X] kz¥w km¿h-{XnIkmwKXysØ Htc-k-abw {]Jym-]n-°p-Ibpw A`n-e-jn-°pIbpw sNøp-∂p. B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS ]pXp-a, (As√¶n¬,
AXp-sIm-≠p-h-cp∂ ]pXp-a, ]pXn-sbm-cp-Xcw ]pXpabm-sW∂ Bi-bw) Cu ssZzX-`m-hsØ kzm`m-hn-Iambn ]n¥p-S-cp∂p. ⁄mt\m-Z-b-]-≤Xn ]e {]Xn-`mk߃°pw P∑w \¬In-bn-´p-≠mImw; ]t£ B[p-\n-IX-bn-epƒs∏´p Ign-™-tijw B[p-\n-I-cm-bn-Øocm≥ sImXn® hy‡n-Isf krjvSn-°m-\mWv AXv
A`nejn®Xv.
(A∏m-Zpssc 1997 : ]pdw 1)
At∏mƒ, B[p-\n-IX ta¬]-d™ aqey-]-c-amb hnti-jm-\pIqey-߃ kzbw Ah-Im-i-s∏-´p. AtXm-sSm∏w as‰√m bpK-ßsfbpw kwkvIm-c-ß-sfbpw ]n∂n-em-°p-∂, Ah-bp-ambn XnI®pw
Ak-am-\-amb _‘w am{X-a-\p-h-Zn-°p∂ Hcp ap≥\nc-bn¬ AXv
kzbw {]XnjvTn-®p.
kmaq-lnI-im-kv{X-ap-Jy-[mc ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS
C∏d™ Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-߃ shdpw Aaq¿Ø-ß-f-s√∂p ImWmw˛
icn°pw kzbw{]Xy-£-k-Xy-ß-fm-bmWv Ah AhnsS AwKo-Icn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv. \ap°v B[p-\n-I-Xsb ]e-hn-[-Øn¬ ho£n°mw.
]e-t∏mgpw "]mc-ºcy'Øns‚ (B-[p-\n-I-Im-esØ kp{]-[m-\
62

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

-hm-°p-I-fn¬ as‰m-∂t{X CXv) t\¿hn-]-co-X-sa∂\nebv°v AXv
{]Xy-£-amIm-dp-≠v. Aß-s\-b-√m-sX, kz¥w _lp-ap-J-t\-´ß-fpsS B¥-cn-I-sI-´p-d-∏ns‚ hyh-ÿ-Iƒ°p-≈n¬ \ma-Xns\
Z¿in-°m-dp-≠v. AXv Fß-s\-bm-sW-¶n-epw, ⁄mt\m-Z-bm-\¥c
]m›mXy bqtdm-]y≥ B[p-\n-I-X-bpsS A\p-]-a-XzsØ Dds°
{]Jym-]n-°p∂ sXfn-hp-I-fpsS AXyp-{K≥ \nc-Xs∂ kmaq-lnI
im-kv{X-apJy[m-c
bn¬
lmPcp- ≠ v.
tembvUv dptUmƒ^v,
kpskbv≥ dptUm
ƒ^v (Lloyd Rudolph,
Susanne

Rudolph)

F∂o kmaq- l nI
imkv{X- ⁄ ¿ Cu
sXfn-hp-Isf Ah-X-cntembvUv dptUmƒ^v, kpskbv≥ dptUmƒ^v
∏n-°p-∂-Xn-ßs\ :
Xt±- i o- b - _ - ‘ ßfpw CSp- ß nb Imgv N - ∏ m- S p- I fpw
km¿h{XnI {]Xn- _ - ≤ - X bv ° pw k¿h- t Zi{]nbX
bv°pw hgn-am-dn-s°m-Sp-°p-sa∂ ap≥[m-cW
- b
- mWv B[p\n-I-Xbp-tSXv; D]bp-‡X (utility), IW-°p-Iq-´¬ (calculation), imkv{Xw F∂n-h-bpsS kXy-߃ hnImcw,
]mh-\Xzw (sacred), bpt‡y-Xcw (non-rational) F∂nh-bpsS kXy-߃°p-]c
- n-bmbn \n¬°-Ws
- a-∂pw AXp
Icp-Xp-∂p. kaq-l-Øn¬ cmjv{So-b-Øns‚ ASn-ÿm-\L-SIw kwL-a√ hy‡n-bm-bn-cn-°-W-sa∂pw [A-XpI-cp-Xpw]; a\p-jy≥ Pohn-°p-Ibpw ]Wn-sb-Sp-°p-Ibpw
sNøp∂ kmaq- l nIK- W - ß sf \n¿W- b n- t °≠Xv
P\-\-a-√, [hy-‡n-I-fpsS kz¥w] Xocp-am\-ß-fm-bncn-°W-sa∂pw; `uXn-I-˛-am\-knI ]cn-ÿn-Xn-tbm-Sp≈
a\p-jy-a-t\m-`m-h-Øns‚ Zni \n¿W-bn-t°-≠Xv hn[nhn-izm-k-a-√, [A-h-bpsS taep-≈] A[o-iXz-t_m-[
-am-sW∂pw; sXmgnepIsf DtZym-K-ÿ-ÿm-]-\ßfn¬
]p\xÿm]n- ® p- s Im≠v IpSpw- _ w, Xma- k ÿ- e w,
kap-Zmbw F∂n-h-bn¬ \n∂v AI-‰-W-sa-∂pw...
(Rudolph & Rudolph, 1967)

B[p\nIXbpsS kz`m-h-hn-ti-j-ß-fpsS Cu \o≠ ]´n-I
-bn¬ a‰p Nne-Xp-IqSn \ap°p tN¿°mw ˛ `c-W-co-Xn-bn¬ h∂
hnπ-h-I-c-amb am‰w AYhm P\m-[n-]Xyw, B[p-\n-I-tZ-i-cmjv{Sw
63

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

(nation-state), tZi-cm-jv{S-kw-hn-[m\w (nation-state system) F∂n-hbpsS DZbw; kab-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ ]pXn-bXpw Xo{h-X-tb-dn-b-Xpamb Ah-t_m[w; IqSmsX, as‰mcp Xe-Øn¬, ssZhw, {]IrXn
F∂n-h-bv°p-]-Icw a\pjy≥, bp‡n F∂nh ASnÿm\kwh¿Kß-fmbn IW-°m-°-s∏´Xv. H∏w Xs∂, ]e-Xcw _rl-ZmJym-\ß-tfmSp≈ (meta-narratives) ˛ hnti-jn®v ]ptcm-KXnsb (progress)
tI{μo-I-cn-®p≈ KmYItfmSp≈ ˛ BI¿j-Whpw B[p-\n-I-XbpsS khn-ti-j-kz`mhwXs∂.
Xo¿®bmbpw B[p- \ nIXbpsS Bi- b ˛- ÿ m]\k- © bw
\Ωp-sS-ta¬ henb-tXm-Xn¬ `uXn-Ihpw [m¿an-I-hp-amb A[nIm-c-{]-tbmKw \S-Øp-∂p-≠v. a‰p kmaq-lnIhy-h-ÿ-I-sf-t∏mse
B[p-\n-I-Xbv°pw Gsd-°psd {]tXy-I-kz`mhap≈ Ncn-{X-˛kmw-kvIm-cn-I-th-cp-I-fm-Wp-≈-Xv. bqtdm-∏ns‚ khn-tijNcn-{X˛
kmwkvImcnI kml-N-cy-ß-fn-em-bn-cp∂p AXp apf-s]m-´n-b-Xv.
F∂m¬ temIsØ apgp-h≥ kz¥w cq]-Øn¬ am‰n-sb-Sp-°m-\m-hiy- a mb kmt¶- X n- I - t i- j n, kmaq- l nI kwL- S - \ , A[n- I m- c
-{]-tbm-KsØ km[y-am-°p∂ hyhÿm]nX C—mi‡n F∂nh
ssIh- i - a p- ≠ m- b n- c p∂ GI kmaq- l nIhy- h ÿ ]m›mXy
bqtdm-]y≥ B[p-\n-I-X-bn-em-Wp-≠m-b-Xv. Cu ]p\¿cq-]o-I-c-WØns‚ km£m¤mhw {]I-S-am-bXv tImf-\o-I-cWw AYhm
A[n\n-thiw (colonization) F∂ {]{In-b-bn-em-Wv. B[p-\nI˛
]q¿h-bq-tdm-∏n-emWv Cu {]{Inb Bcw-`n-®Xv; "\h-temIw' (New
World) F∂-dn-b-s∏´ Ata-cn-°≥ `qJ-fi-ß-fnse kaq-l-ßsf
D∑q-e\w sNø¬, Ahn-tSbv°v bqtdm-]y¿ \S-Ønb IpSn-tb-‰w,
Ch- s b- Ø p- S ¿∂v `qtKm- f - Ø ns‚ F√m `mK- ß - s fbpw Ah¿
t\cnt´m A√m-sXtbm Iog-S-°n-b-Xns‚ Ncn-{Xw...- -C-ßs\ \o≠p
A[n-\n-th-i-Øns‚ hgn. Iog-S-°-s∏´ bqtdmt-]yXcP\-ß-fn¬
i‡-amb am\-kn-I-˛-[m¿an-I-^-e-߃ Df-hm-°nb A[n-\nth-icq-]-ßfpsS {]XymLmX-߃ IqSp-X¬ Bg-Øn¬ \ne-\n¬°p∂-h-bm-bn-cp∂p. B[p-\n-I-X-tbmSv \mtam-tcm-cp-Øcpw ]pe¿Øp∂
at\m`mh߃ hn`n-∂-am-tb-°mw. ]t£, \mw A[n-h-kn-°p∂
{]Xy-b-im-kv{X-N-´-°q-Sp-I-sf, \map-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ _u≤nI D]
-I-c-W-ß-sf, \mw hne- I-ev]n-°p∂ aqey-ßsf F√mw Akm-[m-cW-am-sbmcf-hn¬ cq]-s∏-Sp-Øn-bXv B[p-\n-IXXs∂.
ta¬h-c® Nn{Xw AXn-hn-im-e-am-bn-t∏m-sb∂v kΩ-Xn-°p-∂p.
\nch[n coXn-I-fn¬ Cu Nn{XsØ ]cn-an-X-s∏-Sp-Øp-Ibpw IqSpX¬ k¶o¿W-am-°p-Ibpw thWw (Cu coXn-Iƒ Nne-t∏mƒ ]ckv]-c-hn-cp-≤-am-Im-dp-s≠-∂Xv as‰mcp Imcyw). F∂m¬ `qtKm-f64

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

Ønep-S-\ofw AX-v Agn-®p-hn´ i‡n-Ifpw {]{In-b-Ifpw AXn-i-bI-camw-hn[w Htc _nμp-hn¬ kwKan-°p-∂-h-bm-sW-¶nepw, B[p\n-IX GIo-Ir-Xhpw H‰bv°p \n¬°p-∂-Xp-amb kØ-b-√. kXyØn¬ "B[p-\n-IX'sb Atß-b‰w Aaq¿Ø-ambn k¶-ev]n-°ptºmƒ am{Xta AXn-s\-°p-dn-®p≈ N¿® efn-X-am-Iq. B[p-\n-I
-X-bp-tS-Xmb Np‰-f-hn¬Øs∂ AtX-°p-dn-®p-≠mb [mc-W-Iƒ
khn-tijhyXy-kvXX-I-tfm-Sp-Iq-Sn-b-hbpw ]e-t∏mgpw ]c-kv]cw
tN¿∂pt]mIm- Ø - h - b p- a m- b n- c p- ∂ p. Xs∂- b p- a - √ , B[p- \ n- I X
Xs∂ t\¿hn-]-co-X-Z-ni-I-fn¬ \ne-bp-d-∏n-°p∂ XXz-Nn-¥m-]-≤XnIƒ°p P∑w \¬In-bn-´p-≠v (dqt mbpsS Imev]-\n-I-hm-Zhpw
(Romanticism), \ot®bpsS \ntj-[-hm-Zhpw (Nihilism) Hcp-t]mse
B[p-\n-I-Xm-k-¥m-\-ß-fmWv!). AXp-t]m-se, bqtdm]y≥ B[p\n-IX a‰p `q`m-K-ßsf A[n-\n-th-i-Øn-eqsS Iogvs∏-Sp-Øm≥
\S-Ønb {ia-߃ A[n-Ihpw hnP-bn-®p-sh-¶n-epw, a‰p kwkvIm-cßtfm kmaq-lnIk-{º-Zm-b-ßtfm AXns‚ IpsØm-gp-°n¬
]q¿Wambpw am™p-t]m-bn-√. bYm¿∞Øn¬ Ah adbpIb√,
Xo{hhpw \nc-¥-c-hp-amb kΩ¿±-Øn\v hnt[-b-am-hp-I-bm-Wp≠m-bXv. am{X-a-√, 21-˛mw \q‰m-≠n¬ B[p-\n-I-Xsb temI-Øns‚
an° `mK-Øp-ap≈ P\-߃ kz¥w e£y-ambn kzbw sXc-s™SpØp Ign-™n-cn-°p-∂p. CtXmsS AXv
temI-sa-ºmSpw km[q-I-cn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.
A\y¿ ASn-t®¬∏n-®-X-√, adn®v kzbw
sXc-s™-SpØ e£y-am-bmWv C∂v AXv
\ne-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv.
]m›m-Xy-tem-I-Øn\p
]pd-Øp≈ B[p-\n-IX
B[p-\n-I-Xsb A]-{K-Yn-°m\pw ]Tn°m\pw \map-]-tbm-Kn-°p∂ k¶-ev]-\-˛D-]I
- c
- W
- ß
- ƒ B[p-\n-IX
- b
- n¬\n∂p-Xs∂
D≠m-b-h-bmWv. Cu {]tXy-IX B[p-\n-IX-bpsS apJy-h-i-ß-fn-sem-∂m-Wv. Hc¿∞Øn¬ B[p- \ n- I X kmam- \ y- _ p- ≤ n- s b
-t∏m-se-bm-Wv- ˛- c≠pw \ΩpsS _u≤n-I
-N-{I-hm-f-ßsf \n¿W-bn-°p-∂p. Ahbv°p
]pd-Øp- amdn\n¬°m≥ \ap°v CS-an-√.
ta¬hn-h-cn® B[p-\n-I-X-tbm-Sp≈ {]Xn-Ic-W-ßsf∂ \ne-bv°mWv \man-∂-dn-bp∂
kmaq- l nIim- k v { X߃ cq]- s a- S p- Ø - X v .

dqt m

\ot®
65

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

⁄mt\m- Z bIme- Ø n- \ p- t ijw ]›n- a bq-tdm-∏n-emWv Ah ]nd-∂Xv (Hawthorn,
1987). ]pXn-bXpw Ncn-{X-Øn¬ ap≥ amXr-II- f n- √ m- Ø - X p- a mb Cu kmaq- l nIhy- h ÿsb a\- n-em-°m-\p≈ hnim-e-{i-a-ßfpsS `mK-am-bmWv (hn-ti-jn-®pw) kaq-l
-im-kv{X-sa∂ ⁄m\-imJ I≠p-]n-Sn-°
-s∏-´-Xv. Cu ⁄m\-im-J-bpsS P\-bn-Xm-°fmbn AwKo- I - c n- ° - s ∏´ ssk≤m- ¥ n- I ¿
HKÃv tImw´v
˛ HKÃv tImw´v ( Auguste Comte), Imƒ
am¿Ivkv (Karl Marx), Fao¬ U¿ssJw
( Émile Durkheim), amIvkv sh_¿ ( Max
Weber), sl¿s_¿´v kvs]≥k¿ (Herbert
Spencer ), s^¿Un- \ m≥Uv sSmWokv
(Ferdinand Tönnies) F∂n-h¿- ˛ ]m-›mXy
bqtdm-∏ns‚ B[p-\n-I-h¬I-cW A\p-`hsØ kn≤m¥-h-¬I-cn-°m≥ Xm¬]cyw
Im´n- b - h - c m- b n- c p- ∂ p. kaqlw B[p\n- I am- b n- Ø o- c p- ∂ , As√- ¶ n¬ B[p- \ nI
Imƒ am¿Ivkv
ambnØo¿°- s ∏Sp- ∂ , {]{Inbbnembn
cp∂p AhcpsS Xm¬]cyw.
1950Ifn¬ -am{X-amWv ˛ -AXmb-Xv, kaql- i mkv { Xwt]mep≈ ⁄m\- i m- J - I ƒ
ÿm]-\h
- ¬I-cn-°s
- ∏-´X
- n\v Ac-\q-‰m-≠n-\ptijw ˛ B[p-\n-I-h¬I-c-W-tØm-Sp≈
Cu A°m-ZanI Xm¬]cyw ]m›mtXy-Xc
temI-tØbv°v \o≠sX∂ hkvXpX \sΩ
A¤p-X-s∏-Sp-Øn-°q-Sm. AXp-hsc ]m›mFao¬ U¿ssJw
tXy- X - c - k - a q- l - ß ƒ \n¿h- N - \ - { ]- I mcw
B[p\n-I-a-√m-bn-cp-∂p. "{]mIrX' kwkvIm-c-ß-fn¬ Xm¬]cyw
Im´nb \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄tcm ap≥Ime{]Xm-]-Øn¬ Pzen®
\mK-cn-I-X-I-fpsS ]q¿hImew ]Tn-°m≥ {ian® ]uckvXyhmZ
]fin- X tcm (orientatists) BWv Ah- s b- ° p- d n®v Kth- j Ww
\S-Øn-b-Xv.
]t£, c≠mwtemI-bp-≤-Øns‚ Ah-km-\-tØmsS temIw
AXn-thKw amdn. ioX-bp≤Øns‚ Bcw-`-ImeØpXs∂ Bcw`n®
A]tImf\nh¬I-cW (decolonization) {]{In-b-Iƒ "aq∂mwtemI'
(Third World)Øn\v P∑-ta-In. 1940IfpsS Ah-km-\-h¿j-߃
apX¬ 1960 hsc-bp≈ Ime-b-f-hn¬ kzmX{¥yw t\Snb ]pXnb
66

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

B{^n-°≥-˛-Gjy≥ cmPy-ß-fmWv "aq∂mwtemI'ambn Xncn-®-dn-bs∏-´-Xv. Hcp hiØv Cu {]{Inb `qtKm-f-Øns‚ ]e `mK-ßfn¬
ÿnXn-sN-bvXn-cp∂ ]pXn-b- cm-Py-ß-fn¬ ]pØ≥ {]Xymibpw
Du¿Phpw DW¿Øn-hn-´p-. -bp-‡y-[n-jvTn-Xhpw imkv{X˛-km-t¶XnIhnZy-I-fn-eq-∂nbXpamb A\-¥-amb `uXn-I-]ptcmKXn F∂
Bi- b - Ø n¬ A\- e v ] - a mb hnizm- k w HcpImeØv A¿∏n- ° s∏´p. F∂m¬ adp-]-£-Øv, temI-hy-h-ÿsb Xmßn-\n¿Ønb
kmaq-lnI˛-cm-jv{Sob Ak-a-Xz-߃, {]tXy-In®v kmº-ØnImka-Xz-߃, ASn-ÿm-\-X-e-Øn¬ amdn-b-tX-bn-√. Npcp-°n-∏-d-™m¬
Cu ]pXn-b- cm-Py-߃ am‰w, ]ptcm-KXn F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn-®p≈
Xt±- i - h m- k n- I - f psS kph¿W- I m- e - { ]- X o£-I-fpsS `fim-c-ß-fm-bn. H∏w Xs∂,
]g-b-˛-]p-Xnb temI-i-‡n-Iƒ kzm[o-\
-h-e-b-߃ \n¿an-°m≥ \S-Ønb a’-c-ßfn¬ "CS-]m-Sp-Imcmbn' amdm≥ km[y-Xbp≈ `c-WI
- q-Sß
- f
- p-ambn. ]m›m-Xy-temIw
GXm≠p apgp-h-\m-bn-Øs∂ Ata-cn-°≥
sFIy-\m-Sp-I-fpsS A[oiXzØnem-bXpw
Cu {]{In-bbv°v B°w- Iq-´n.
amIvkv sh_¿
1950IfpsS BZyh¿jßfnemWv "B[p\n-IhXvIcW]T\-߃'°v (modernization
studies) XpS-°w- Ip-dn-°-s∏-´-Xv. ioX-k-acw
Pbn-°pI F∂ e£y-tØmsS Ata-cn-°≥
sFIy-\m-Sp-Iƒ ]n≥Xm-ßnb ]pXn-sbmcp
_lp⁄m\imJmkz`mhap≈ ( multidisciplinary) A°m-ZanI kwcw-`-am-bn-cp∂p
AXv. AXn\v EWm-fl-Ihpw KpWm-fl-I-hpamb hi-ßf
- p-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Gjy, B{^n°,
em‰n≥ Ata-cn° F∂n-hn-S-ß-fnse Zcn-{Z- sl¿_¿´v kvs]≥k¿
cm-Py-߃ Iayq-WnkØntebv°v sX∂n
hogmsX t\m°pI F∂Xmbncp∂p
EWmflIhiw. ÿncXbm¿∂, kmº
ØnIhpw cmjv{Sobhpamb Poh-\-£-a-Xbp≈, Iayq-Wn-Ãn-Xc hf¿®m-˛-hn-I-k-\
- ] m- X - I ƒ Xpd- ° pIsb∂- X m- b n- c p∂p
KpWmfl- I - h - i w. Cu kwcw- ` - Ø ns‚
`mKambn bp.-Fkv s^U-d¬ k¿°m-cns‚
\nc-h[n ÿm]\߃ ˛ (ssk-\y-apƒs∏sS-bp-≈-h), ap≥\nc k¿hIemimeIƒ, s^¿Un-\m≥Uv sSmWokv
67

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

kzIm-cy- Po-h-Im-cpWy ^ut≠-j-\p-Iƒ (t^m¿Uv, tdmIvs^-√¿
F∂nh {]tXy-In-®pw) apX-em-bh ˛ aq∂mwtemIsØ ]pXnb
cmPyßsf∏‰nbp≈ kmaq-lnIimkv{XKthjWØn\v Ncn{XØn- e - t ∂- h sc I≠n- ´ n- √ m- Ø - { X- b - [ nIw kmº- Ø nI]n¥pW
\¬In. (Myrdal, 1970 : 12˛16; Gendzier, 1985, {]tXy-In®v A[ymbw
2). am{X-a-√, tZio-b-hm-Z-Øn-s‚bpw kzmX-{¥y-e-_v[n-bp-sSbpw
^e- a mbn aq∂mw- t em- I - Ø nse a[y- h ¿Khtc- W y¿°n- S - b n¬
kz¥w kaq-l-ß-fpsS hnI-k-\w, B[p-\n-I-h-¬I-cWw F∂n-hsb-°p-dn®v AXn-bmb Xm¬]cyw P\n-®p. CXv Kth-j-W-]-T-\߃°p e`n® `c-W-Iq-S-]n-¥p-W-bm-bpw, Ipd-™-]£w, ]pdw
-cm-Py-ß-fn¬\n∂p≈ kmº-Øn-I-k-lm-b-tØm-sS-bp≈ Kth-jW{i-a-ß-fp-ambn kl-I-cn-°m-\p≈ C—-bmbpw {]Xn-^-en-®p.3 Cu
]›m- Ø - e Øn¬, hf¿®, hnI- k - \ w, B[p- \ n- I - h ¬I- c Ww
F∂n-h-sb-°p-dn-®p≈ kn≤m-¥-߃ D≠m-bn-h∂Xpw Ahbv°v
{]oXn -e-`n-®Xpw GXm-s≠m-cp A\n-hm-cyX t]mse-bm-bn-cp-∂p
(Myrdal, 1970 : 8).
F∂m¬, hntcm-[m-`m-k-sa∂p ]d-b-s´, H∂mwtemIw, c≠mw
temIw, aq∂mwtemIw F∂n-ßs\ temIw hn`-Pn-°-s∏´ thfbn¬Øs∂ apsºm-cn-°epw \S-∂n-´n-√m-Ø{X Xo{h-X-tbmsS AXv
GIo-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp-I-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p. \q‰m-≠p-I-tfmfw \S∂ sIm≈,
I®-h-Sw, bp≤w, aX-hym-]-\w, Iog-S-°¬, A[n-\n-thiw F∂nh
bneqsS temI-sa-ºm-Sp-ap≈ P\-ß-ƒ ]e-X-c-Øn-¬ ]c-kv]cw
C-S-]-g-In-bn-cp-∂p. F¶nepw 20˛mw \q‰m-≠nse kw`-h-hn-Im-k-߃
apsºmcn-°epw \S-∂n-´n-√m-Ø{X Xo{ham-bn-cp-∂p. B \q‰m-≠ns‚
BZyZi-I-ß-fn¬ \S∂ tcmK-\n-hm-cW{]N-mcW]cn-]m-Sn-I-fn
-eqsS "BtKm-f-am-\-h-P-\-XXn'sb∂ Bibw krjvSn-°-s∏-´p
Ign-™n-cp∂p ˛ tcmKßfpb¿Ønb A]ISkm[yXbv°v Hcp
t]mse hnt[bamb BtKmfP\X F∂ Bibw. 1920-˛30Ifn
-ep-≠mb alm-km-º-Øn-I-amμyw (Great Depression) tZiob kºZv
hy-h-ÿ-I-fpsS ]c-kv]-cm{in-X-XzsØ \mS-Io-b-amb coXn-bn¬
shfns∏- S p- Ø n. 1950- I - s f- Ø nb- t ∏mƒ h≥ \- i o- I c- W - t i- j nbp≈ ]pXnb Bbp-[-߃, iq\ymImiKthjWØnep≠mb
Akmam\yhnPb߃ apXembh a\pjymht_m[sØ
ÿncambn am‰n-sb-gp-Xn- ˛- F-√m-hcpw ]¶p-h-bv°p∂ Htc-sbmcp
{Kl-amWv `qan F∂-Xns\-°p-dn-®p≈ i‡-amb Ah-t_m[w
]cs° \ne-hn¬h∂p.
]m›mXykmaq- l nI- i mkv { Xw B[p- \ nIh¬I- c W]T- \ ß-fn-eqsS ]m›m-tXy-X-c-tem-IsØ BZyambn A`n-kw-t_m-[\
sNbvX-Xns‚ Ncn-{X-km-l-N-cy-an-Xm-bn-cp-∂p ˛ kmam-\y-X, am‰w,
68

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

HØp-tN-c¬ F∂o Bi-b-ß-tfm-sSm∏w BgØnep≈ `n∂-X-Iƒ
\ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ _u≤nIImem-h-ÿ-bn-emWv CXm-cw-`n-®Xv. B[p\n-I-a-s√∂v kwi-bm-Xo-X-ambn Icp-Xm-am-bn-cp∂ Cu kaq-l-߃
F{]-Im-cw, GXp hn[Øn¬, Fßs\ B[p\nI-ambn amdp-sa∂
tNmZy-ß-fmWv Cu Ncn-{X-km-l-N-cy-Øn¬ D∂-bn-°-s∏´Xv.
B[p-\nIh¬IcW]T\ßfpsS Cu hf¿®mImew (1950-Iƒ
apX¬ 1970-Iƒ h-sc) Gsd KpWw -sN-bvXXv hnI-k-\-k-º-Zv
im-kv{X-Øn\pw (Development Economics) AXn-t\mSp tN¿∂p\n¬°p∂ a‰p-Nne ⁄m\-im-J-Iƒ°p-am-bn-cp-∂p. F¶nepw
kaq-l-imkv{Xw (hn-ti-jn®v {KmaoW kaqlimkv{Xw), {]tZ-i]-T-\-߃ (area studies), cmjv{So-b-hn-⁄m-\o-bw, kaql-a-\x
imkv{Xw apXemb ⁄m\-im-J-Ifpw C°m-eØv ]pjvSn-{]m-]n®p.
kaq-l-im-kv{X-Øn\v {]tXyI {]m[m\yw Xs∂-bp-≠m-bn-cp-∂p.
ImcWw A∂v G‰hpa[nIw D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏´ ssk≤m-¥nI N´°qSv \n¿an-®Xv kaq-l-im-kv{X-⁄-\mb Sm¬tIm´v ]mgvk¨kv
Bbn- c p- ∂ p. kaq- l - Ø ns‚ Xmc- X - t ay\ kpÿn- c - L - S - \ - I - t f
-sXm-s°-sb∂v Xncn-®-dn-bp-I, kaq-l-Øns‚
\ne-\n-ev]n\v AXy-¥m-t]-£n-X-amb [¿a߃ \n¿h- l n- ° p∂ kmaq- l nIL- S - I ß- f psS {]h¿Ø\w ]cn- t im- [ n- ° p- I ,
Ah- b psS ]c- k v ] - c - { ]- h ¿Ø- \ - Ø n- e qsS
kmaqlnI DZv{K-Y\w km[y-am-°p-∂-sX-ßs\-sb∂p a\- n-em-°p-I CsXm-s°-bm-bncp∂p ]mgvk¨kv D∂-bn® kaq-l-im-kv{Xkn- ≤ m¥- Ø ns‚ ImX¬. kaq- l - L - S - I
-ßsf h¿Ko-I-cn-°p-∂, Ah-bpsS ]c-kv]c Sm¬tIm´v ]mgvk¨kv
DZv{K-Y-\sØ ]Tn-°p∂ coXn-bm-bn-cp∂p
CXv . XnI®pw Aaq¿Ø- k z- ` mhw ]pe¿Øn- b n- c p- ∂ - X n- \ m¬
]mgvk¨kns‚ kmaq-lnIkn-≤m¥w "kml-N-cy-hn-ap-‡'hpw
]m›m-Xy-kw-kvIm-c-Øn¬\n∂v ]m›m-tXy-XckwkvIm-c-ß-fntebv°v Ffp-∏-Øn¬ sIm≠p-h-cm-\m-hp-∂-Xp-am-sW∂v hniz-kn°-s∏-´p. kmaq-lnI-{]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fpsS h¿Ko-I-c-WsØ D∂w
-h-bv°p-∂Xpw Ah-bpsS ka-\z-b-Øn-\v Du-∂¬ \¬Ip-∂-Xp-amb
Cu N´- ° q- S mWv A∂v km¿h- { Xn- I - a m- b - X v . {KmaoW kaq- l im- k v { X- Ø n\v Cu ]›m- Ø - e - Ø n¬ e`- n ® A\nhmcyamb
{]m[m\yØns‚ ^e- a mbn kaq- l imkv { X⁄m\imJbpsS
{]mapJytadn. an°hmdpw aq∂mw-tem-I -{Km-aoWkaq-l-ß-fmWv
C°m-eØv ]T\-hnt[-b-am-b-Xv. hnI-k-\w, ]c-º-cm-K-X-km-aq-lnIcq-]-ß-fn¬ \n∂v B[p\nIkmaq-lnIcq-]-ß-fn-te-bv°p≈ am‰w,
69

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

B[p-\nIcmjv{So-b-ÿm]-\-ß-fpsS DZ-bhpw AXns‚ ]mX-bnse
X- S - ßfpw, cmjv { Sobm[p\nIh¬Ic- W sØ klm- b n- ° p∂
LSI-߃, B[p-\nIaqey-߃, a´p-Iƒ F∂nhsb hy‡n-Iƒ
kzmwio-I-cn-°p∂ {]{In-b-bpsS hnImkw, AXns‚ hgn-bn-ep≈
{]Xn-_-‘-߃ apX-emb {]ta-b-ß-fm-bn-cp∂p B[p-\n-I-h¬I
cW]T-\-K-th-j-W-߃ A[nIhpw ]n¥p-S¿∂-Xv.
B[p-\n-I-h¬Ic-W-]-T-\-߃ sN∂-h-km-\n-®Xv apt∂m´p
\oßm\m-hm-Ø-hn[w AS-™p-t]msbmcp ]mX-bpsS A‰-ØmsW∂v C∂v \ap°-dn-bmw. ]t£, kmaq-lnIim-kv{X-ß-fpsS
BtKm-f-N-cn-{X-Ønse kmc-h-Ømb Hcp \nanjsØ-Ø-s∂-bmWv
Ah AS-bm-f-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv. Ipd-™]£w, B ]mX ]n¥p-S¿∂
]fin-X-¿ h®p ]pe¿Ønb ip≤-K-Xn-tbmfwt]m∂ Bfl-hnizmkw- ˛- B-[p-\n-I-h-¬I-c-W-sa-∂m¬ "kXy-am-b-Xn-s‚, \∑
-bp-≈-Xn-s‚, A\n-hm-cy-am-b-Xns‚' kn≤m-¥-amsW∂ B Bflhn-izmkw (A¿Pp≥ A∏m-Zpssc, 1991 : ]pdw 11) ˛ \Ωp-sS-bp-≈n¬
ktμ-l-ap-W¿Øp-Ibpw B[p-\n-I-Xbpw ]m›m-tXy-X-c-k-aq-lßfpw XΩn-ep≈ hnjaw ]nSn®- _‘sØ°pdn®v ]p\-cmtem-Nn°m≥ \sΩ t{]cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
C¥y-bpsS khn-ti-jX
ta¬∏d™ BtKm-f-]-›m-Ø-e-Øns‚ kzm[o\w i‡-am-bnØs∂ ChnsS A\p`hs∏s´¶nepw, C¥y-bnse B[p-\n-I-h-¬IcW]T-\-ß-fpsS Ncn-{ X-Ø n\v Nne khn- t i- j - X- I - f p- s≠∂p
ImWmw. C¥y≥`c-WI
- q-S\
- b
- Ø
- n¬ {]ap-Jhpw i‡-hp-amb kzm[o\-am-bn-cp∂p Ata-cn-°≥ B[p-\n-I-h¬I-c-W-kn-≤m-¥w. F∂m¬,
a‰p aq∂mwtemI-cm-Py-ß-fn¬\n∂p hyXy-kvX-am-bn, C¥y-bnse
kmaq-lnIam-‰-sØ-°p-dn-®p≈ ]T-\-ß-fn¬ AXns‚ km∂n[yw
Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd-hm-bn-cp-∂p. CXn\p Imc-W-߃ aq∂m-bn-cp∂p:
H∂v, a‰p ]m›mXy]finX-]m-c-º-cy-߃°v C¥y-bp-ambp≠m-bncp∂ ap≥]cn-N-bhpw _‘hpw; c≠v, sNdp-sX-¶nepw \∂mbn
hnI-kn® X\-Xp -K-th-j-W-ÿm-]-\-ß-fpsS km∂n[yw; aq∂v,
Zo¿L-Im-e-ambn ChnsS \ne-\n-∂n-cp∂ tZiob{]ÿm-\-Øns‚
A[o-i-Xz-kz-`m-h-am¿∂ kzm[o-\w (hegemonic influence).
kPo-ha
- m-bn-Øp-Sc
- p∂ Hcp alm-]m-cº
- cyw, kPo-ha
- m-bn-Øp-S¿∂
]pcm-X\\mK-cn-IX
- - F∂o cq]-ßf
- n¬ ]cn-Nn-Xa
- m-bn-cp∂ kwkvImc
sa∂\nebv°v ]m›m-Xy-]-fin-Xsc kw_-‘n-®n-S-tØmfw C¥y
A]-cn-Nn-XaWvUetam ap≥]-T-\-߃ Xosc-bn-√mØ taJ-etbm
Bbn-cp-∂n-√. AXm-bXv C¥y-bp-tS-Xv, tdm_¿´v sdUv^o¬Uns‚
hm°p-I-fn¬, "inc-t—Zw sNø-s∏-´' ]mc-º-cy-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.4 1760
apX-en-tßm´v C¥y≥kaq-l-sØ-°p-dn®v hy‡-ambpw B[p-\n-I70

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

am-b, hyh-ÿm-]q¿W-amb coXn-bn¬ cNn-°-s∏-´ hn⁄m\w {]Xy£-s∏´pXpS-ßn-bn-cp-∂p. ]uc-kvXy-hm-Zn-If
- mb C≥tUm-fPn ]finX¿, A[n-\n-thi `cWkwhn-[m-\-Øn¬ {]h¿Øn® DtZym-K-ÿ¿,
aX-{]-Nm-c-I¿ apX-em-b-h-cmWv Cu cN-\-bn¬ ]s¶-Sp-Ø-Xv,
s_¿\mUv tImls‚ ]T\w kqNn-∏n°pwt]mse (1987 : 141 -˛ 71).
Ccp-]Xmw \q‰m-≠ns‚ BZy-Z-i-I-ß-tfm-Sp-IqSn Cu ⁄m\\n¿amW]c-º-c-Iƒ C¥y≥ kwkvIm-c-Øns‚ hnhn-[ -h-i-ßsf
]cm-a¿in-°p∂ hen-sbmcp {KŸ-ti-J-c-Øn-\p-Xs∂ P∑-ta-In-°gn-™n-cp∂p : ¢mkn-°¬ lnμp-a-X-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´ Ie-Iƒ,
imkv{X-߃, kmwkvIm-cnI˛aX--{]-tbm-K-߃, C¥y≥/lnμp-kap-Zm-bhpw BZn-hmknkaq-lhpw XΩn-ep≈ kmwkvIm-cnIs∏mcpØ-߃, C¥y-bnse ]e {]tZ-i-ß-fnse PmXn-˛-tKm-{X-ß-fpw AhbpsS BNm-c-ßfpw \S-]-Sn-I-fpw -˛ Chsb kw_-‘n® ]pkvX-I߃ C°meØv {]kn-≤o-I-cn-°-s∏-´p. kaql-\-c-hw-i-im-kv{XØns‚ {_n´ojv "Nn´' ]cn-io-en® ]m›m-Xycpw C¥y-°m-cp-amb
]fin-X¿, a‰p Nne Ata-cn-°≥ \c-hw-i-im-kv{X-⁄¿ XpS-ßn-bh¿ {Kma-ß-sfbpw PmXn-I-sfbpw BZn-hm-knk-ap-Zm-b-ß-sfbpw
tI{μ-am°n cNn® IrXn-Iƒ IqSn Cu ]´n-I-bn¬ tN¿°m-hp-∂Xm-Wv.5
F¶nepw A[n-Ihpw \c-hw-ii
- m-kv{X-]T
- \
- ß
- f
- pƒs∏´ sshhn[y]q¿W-amb Cu k©-b-Øn¬ kmaq-lnIam-‰-sØ-°p-dn®v ÿnctam
Bg-Øn-ep-≈tXm Bb Xm¬]cyw ImWm-\n-√m-bn-cp-∂p. am‰-sØ°p-dn®v ]Tn® Npcp°w IrXn-I-fm-I-s´, ]mc-º-cy-Øn-eq-∂nb
{]tbmK-߃, ÿm]-\ß
- ƒ, kap-Zm-bß
- ƒ F∂n-hb
- psS \misØ°p-dn-®mWv At\z-jn-®-Xv. kzmX-{¥y-e-_v[n-°p-ti-jw, ]t£,
kmaq- l nI- a m- ‰ - Ø n- \ m- b p≈ Xnc- ® n¬ C¥y- b nse kmaq- l nI
\-c-hw-i-im-kv{X-]-cn-]m-Sn-bpsS apJy C\-ambn amdn; -a‰p {]iv\ßsf AXv AZr-iy-am-°n-°-f-bp-sa∂p t]mepw Nne ]fin-X¿
i¶n- ® p. 6 ]t£, Cu At\z- j Ww Gs‰- S p- ° - s ∏- ´ Xv Ata- c n°≥ B[p-\n-I-h¬I-cWkn≤m-¥-Øn¬ \n∂v AI-∂p-amdn \n∂psIm-≠m-Wv. \c-hw-i-imkv{Xw Xmc-X-tay\ Ipd™ Xm¬]cyw
am{Xw Im´n-bn-cp∂ {]ta-b-am-bn-cp∂p CsX-∂-Xp-sIm-≠mhmw
Cßs\ kw`-hn-®-Xv.7
C¥y≥]T-\-߃ {]Z¿in-∏n® hyXy-kvX-Xbv°pImc-W-amb
c≠pw aq∂pw LS-I-ßsf H∂n®pImtW≠-Xp≠v: 1950Ifnse
kaq- l - Ø n¬ tZio- b - h m- Z - Ø n- \ p- ≠ m- b n- c p∂ ta¬Iøpw B
ta¬ss° _u≤n-I-cwKØv {]I-S-am-°m≥ {]m]vX-amb ÿm]-\ß-fpsS km∂n-[y-hpw. ]m›m-tXy-XctemI-Øns‚ an° `mK-ßfn-ep-sa-∂-t]mse C¥y-bnepw B[p-\n-I-h-¬I-cWw, hnI-k-\w,
71

ka-Im-enI C¥y
Hcp kaq-l-im-kv{X-ho£Ww

hf¿®, ]ptcm-KXn F∂o {]ta-b-߃ Db¿∂p-h-∂Xv A[n-\nth-i-hp-am-bp≈ G‰p-ap-´-ens‚ hnim-e-]-›m-Ø-e-Øn-em-Wv. 19-˛mw
\q‰m-≠ns‚ c≠mw]Ip-Xn-bnepw AXn-\p-ti-jhpw CXv Iptd
-°qSn Xo{ham-hp-Ibpw sNbvXp. "sh≈-°m-cs‚ `mcw' (white man’s
burden), "]cnjvIcWZuXyw' (civilising mission) XpS-ßnb A[n-\nthimJym-\-ß-fpsS `mK-am-bn-cp∂p Ch-. F-∂m¬ A[n\nthi
a¿±- \ - h y- h - ÿ bpw kmº- Ø nINqj- W hpw Xf¿Øn- ° - f ™
tZisØ ho≠pw hnI-k-\-]m-X-bn-se-Øn-°m≥ B{K-ln® tZiobhmZ BJym-\-߃ Db¿∂ph∂-t∏mƒ, Cu {]tab-߃ Ah-bpsSbpw `mK-am-bn. C¥y≥ kzmX-{¥ysØ ]n¥p-S¿∂ Bth-i]q¿W-amb \mfp-I-fn¬, C¥y-bpsS B[p-\n-I-h-¬I-c-W-Øn\v
Hcp tZiobZuXy-Øns‚ am\-߃ ssIh-∂p. C¥y°m¿ XßfpsS `mK-t[-b-hp-ambn kam-K-an-°p∂ kt¶-X-Øn¬ FØn-t®-cpIX-s∂ sNøp-sa∂ s\lvdp-hn-b≥hN-\-Øns‚ Ahn-`m-Py-L-S-I
-ambn AXp-am-dn. Xo¿®-bmbpw C¥y≥ tZio-b-hmZw temIsØ
a‰p tZio-b-hm-Z-ßsf At]-£n®v Hcp A]-{`w-i-am-bn-cp-∂n-√
(aq∂mwtemI tZio-b-hm-Z-ß-fn¬ G‰hpw {]mb-°q-Sp-X¬ AXn\m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-epw). ]t£, ]m›m-Xy-ssi-en-bn-ep≈ A°m-Z-an-Iÿm-\-ß-fpsS _oP-tI-{μ-߃ -˛ -h-f-cm-\n-S-bp≈ _oP-tI-{μ
-߃- ˛- A-[n-\n-thiss]Xr-I-ambn C¥ybv°p e`n-®Xv Akm[mcWtam AXy-]q¿hw Xs∂tbm Bbn-cp-∂p. B ImesØ a‰p kmaqlnIÿm-]-\-ß-sf-t∏mse C¥y≥ k¿h-I-em-im-e-Ifpw Kth
jWÿm- ] - \ ßfpw tZio- b - ` - c - W - I qS]cn- ] m- S n- I - f n¬ ]¶m- f n
-I-fm-Im≥ shº¬ sIm≠p. C¥y-bn¬ B[p-\n-I-h¬I-c-W-]-T-\߃°v Infn¿Øp-h-cm-\p≈ as‰m-cn-S-am-bn-Øo¿∂p Ch. F∂m¬
]m›m-Xy-]-fin-X-tcmSpw ÿm]-\-ß-tfmSpw ZznapJ-`mh\ ]pe¿
Øp∂ coXn Ch-bn¬ {]_-e-am-bn-cp-∂p.8 Ch-bpsS t\sc Htc
-k-a-bØv ]c-kv]-c-hn-cp-≤-hn-Im-c-߃ h®p-]p-e¿Øp∂ Ah-ÿ
bm-bn-cp∂p Cu "Zznap-JXz'Øn¬.
DXvI-WvTbpw Zznap-J-Xzhpw
""B[p-\n-I-h-¬I-c-W-sa∂ k¶-ev]\w \ap°v aSp-Øp-sh-∂ncn°mw'', Sn.-F≥.-a-Z≥ Fgp-Xp-∂p, ""]t£, {][m-\-s∏´ tNmZyw
CXmWv, Cu aSp-∏n-\p≈ Imc-W-ßsf kq£va-X-tbmsS Nn¥n®v
{Ia-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´pt≠m?'' (Madan 1995 : ]pdw 5). C¥y≥ kaq-lim-kv{X-Øn\v Cu {]tabw aSp-Øp-sh-∂mWv tXm∂p-∂X
- v- ˛- aSp∏pw
taml-`w-Khpw am{X-a-√, ISp-Ø-£o-Whpw AXp-aqew C¥y≥
kaq-l-imkv{Xw kln°p-∂nt√? B[p-\n-I-h¬I-cWk¶-ev]\sØ ]n≥Xp-S-cm-\p≈ {iaw \sΩ C{X hfsc £oWn-∏n®
sX¥p-sIm≠v?
72

"khn-tij B[p-\n-IX'bpsS
`q]Sw \n¿an-°p-tºmƒ

1. `n∂-kz-`m-h-am¿∂ Zzμz-hm-Zhpw AXns‚ Ak-¥p-jvSnIfpw
B[p-\n-I-h¬I-c-W-sa∂ {]Xn-`m-ksØ A]-{K-Yn-°m≥ G‰hp-a[nIw D]-tbm-Kn-°-s∏´ Zzμz-hm-Z-]-c-amb N´-°qSv (dualistic
framework) ta¬∏-d™ £oW-Øns‚ Imc-W-ßfnsem∂m-Imw.
kao-]-Im-e-Øn¬, As√-¶n¬ ap≥Iq´n ImWm-hp∂ `mhn-Im-eØn-se-¶n-epw, C¥y-bn¬ ]mc-º-cy-Ønt\m B[p-\n-I-Xbvt°m
]c-kv]cw ambv®p Ifbm-\p≈ i‡n-bn-s√∂ Dƒ°mgvN ChnSpsØ kaqlim-kv{X⁄¿°nSbn¬ {]_-e-am-bn-cp-∂p. Xr]vXnIcamwhn[w C¥y≥ kaqlsØ Fßs\ Npcp°n hnh- c n°m-sa∂ A